Higiene postural: factores que influyen en una correcta postura en niños y adolescentes. Una revisión sistemática (Postural hygiene: factors that influence correct posture in children and adolescents. A systematic re-view)

Autores/as

  • Jorge Eduardo Olivares Arancibia Physical Education School, Faculty of Education, Universidad de las Américas, Santiago, Chile
  • Rodrigo Nanjarí-Miranda Universidad Mayor
  • Felipe Aranda-Bustamante Universidad de las Américas, Chile https://orcid.org/0009-0006-4556-2738
  • Valerie Saavedra-León Universidad de las Américas, Chile https://orcid.org/0009-0009-0405-6005
  • Janis Zuñiga-Vivanco Universidad de las Américas, Chile
  • Antonio Castillo-Paredes Universidad de las Américas, Chile
  • Rodrigo Yáñez-Sepúlveda Universidad Andres Bello, Chile

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.96405

Palabras clave:

Postura corporal, niños, escuela, educación física, efecto mochila

Resumen

La higiene postural es la técnica de posicionar el cuerpo de manera natural, ya sea en estado estático o dinámico. En este sentido, la columna vertebral es la estructura base para la estabilidad del ser humano, por lo tanto, se deben tomar medidas preventivas para su correcto funcionamiento. El objetivo de la presente revisión es identificar los factores que influyen en una correcta postura corporal en escolares. Se realizó una búsqueda de estudios científicos publicados hasta el mes de mayo de 2023 utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus y SciELO. Las palabras claves utilizadas fueron: “body posture” AND children OR adolescents OR schoolchildren OR schoolchildren´s AND school OR schools. Fueron incluidos todos los artículos que evaluaron la postura corporal y el efecto generado por el uso habitual de la mochila en escolares. La estrategia de búsqueda arrojó 3,030 estudios de los cuales 33 cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad. Es necesario evaluar los cambios que se van desarrollando en la columna, así como la creación de programas de ejercicios para prevenir errores y deformidades posturales, con la finalidad de mejorar la higiene postural en niños.

Palabras Claves: Postura corporal, niños, escuela, educación física, efecto mochila.

Abstract. Postural hygiene is the technique of positioning the body in a natural way, whether in a static or dynamic state. In this sense, the spinal column is the base structure for the stability of the human being, therefore, preventive measures must be taken for its correct functioning. The objective of this review is to identify the factors that influence correct body posture in schoolchildren. A search for scientific studies published up to June 2021 was carried out using the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and SciELO databases. The keywords used were “body posture” AND children OR adolescents OR schoolchildren OR schoolchildren´s AND school OR schools. All the articles that evaluated the body posture and the effect generated by the habitual use of the backpack in schoolchildren were included. The search strategy yielded 3,030 studies of which 33 met the eligibility criteria. It is necessary to evaluate the changes that are developing in the spine, as well as the creation of exercise programs to prevent errors and postural deformities, in order to improve postural hygiene in children.

Key words: Body posture, children, school, physical education, backpack effect.

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Publicado

2024-06-01

Cómo citar

Olivares Arancibia, J. E., Nanjarí-Miranda, R., Aranda-Bustamante, F., Saavedra-León, V., Zuñiga-Vivanco, J., Castillo-Paredes, A., & Yáñez-Sepúlveda, R. (2024). Higiene postural: factores que influyen en una correcta postura en niños y adolescentes. Una revisión sistemática (Postural hygiene: factors that influence correct posture in children and adolescents. A systematic re-view). Retos, 56, 374–384. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.96405

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