Modelos de responsabilidad social corporativa en el sector deporte. Una revisión sistemática (Models of corporate social responsibility in the sports sector. A systematic Review)

  • Ingrid Fonseca Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios- UNIMINUTO. Facultad de educación https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3042-140X
  • Jayson Bernate
  • Cristian Perez
Palabras clave: modelo de gestión, modelo de evaluación, responsabilidad social, medición en el deporte, sostenibilidad., (management model, evaluation model, social responsibility, measurement in sport, sustainability)

Resumen

Las organizaciones deportivas sirven como plataforma para llevar a cabo transformaciones a nivel social, medio ambiental y económico y para promover el bienestar de las personas. De esta manera, se suscitan acciones sostenibles y en búsqueda del éxito organizacional se implementan mecanismos de regulación y se respeta la opinión de los grupos de interés. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es identificar y describir los modelos de responsabilidad social corporativa implementados en el sector deporte. Siguiendo la estructura del protocolo PRISMA se realizó una revisión sistemática en cuatro bases de datos (SportDiscus, Scopus, Scielo y Proquest), utilizando las palabras clave “corporate social responsibility”, “model”, “sport”, “measuring” y “sport organization”, el período de búsqueda fue de 10 años (2011-2020) y se seleccionaron un total de 15 artículos. Entre los resultados se encontró que los modelo de RSC en el sector deporte son escasos y los existentes se basan en escalas, cuestionarios y guiones de entrevista semiestructurada para conocer la opinión de los fanáticos, los deportistas y los gerentes. La evidencia científica indica la necesidad de implementar de manera efectiva los modelos de RSC porque son un canal de motivación, confianza y legitimidad con los deportistas, aficionados y grupos de interés, mejoran la imagen corporativa y la relación con la comunidad. Esta investigación presenta una línea de estudio para investigaciones futuras y sugerencias para que las organizaciones deportivas generen beneficios en los grupos de interés y promuevan valores. 

Abstract. Sports organizations serve as a platform to carry out transformations at a social, environmental and economic level and to promote the well-being of people. In this way, sustainable actions are raised and in search of organizational success, regulatory mechanisms are implemented and the opinion of stakeholders is respected. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and describe the corporate social responsibility models implemented in the sports sector. Following the structure of the PRISMA protocol, a systematic review was carried out in four databases (SportDiscus, Scopus, Scielo and Proquest), using the keywords "corporate social responsibility", "model", "sport", "measuring" and "sport organization ”, the search period was 10 years (2011-2020) and a total of 15 articles were selected. Among the results, it was found that CSR models in the sports sector are scarce and the existing ones are based on scales, questionnaires and semi-structured interview scripts to find out the opinion of fans, athletes and managers. Scientific evidence indicates the need to effectively implement CSR models because they are a channel of motivation, trust and legitimacy with athletes, fans and interest groups, improve the corporate image and the relationship with the community. This research presents a line of study for future research and suggestions for sports organizations to generate benefits for interest groups and promote values.

Biografía del autor/a

Ingrid Fonseca, Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios- UNIMINUTO. Facultad de educación

Aspirante a doctor en administración gerencial, magíster en administración deportiva, magíster
en educación superior, profesional en ciencias de la educación, miembro del GrupLAC
Ambientes de aprendizaje categoría A, con experiencia laboral en docencia universitaria en las
asignaturas de opción de grado, investigación en el énfasis y administración deportiva, aplicación y evaluación de proyectos de investigación en el campo
educativo. Educadora con altos estándares profesionales y líder en procesos de trabajo colectivo. Nivel B1 de inglés.

Citas

Alonso-Dos-Santos, M., Calabuig, F., Montoro, F., & Valantine, I. (2017). Influencia de la RSC en la transmisión de imagen en el patrocinio turístico deportivo. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del ejercicio y el deporte, 12(1), 23-33

Anderson S. & Martin M. (2019). The African American Community and Professional Baseball: Examining Major League Baseball’s Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts as a Relationship Management Strategy. International Journal of Sport Communication, 12(3), 397-418. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.20180157

Atehortua F., Bustamante R. & Valencia J. (2008). Modelos de Gestión. Sistema de gestión integral. Una sola gestión, un solo equipo, Editorial Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/2GQPPgQ

Avendaño, W. (2013) Responsabilidad social (RS) y responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC): una nueva perspectiva para las empresas. Revista lasallista de investigación, 10(1), 152. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/3ePWDHZ

Babiak, K. (2010). The role and relevance of corporate social responsibility in sport: A view from the top. Journal of Management and Organization, 16(4), 528. https://doi.org/10.5172/jmo.2010.16.4.528

Babiak, K., & Kihl, L. A. (2018). A case study of stakeholder dialogue in professional sport: An example of CSR engagement. Business and society review, 123(1), 119-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/basr.12137

Babiak, K., & Wolfe, R. (2009). Determinants of corporate social responsibility in professional sport: Internal and external factors. Journal of sport management, 23(6), 717742. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.23.6.717

Bateman T. y Snell S.(2005), Administración: una ventaja competitiva. McGrawHill/Interamericana (4), 150151 Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/2Io44dx

Bernate, J., Fonseca, I., & Betancourt, M. (2019). Impacto de la actividad física y la práctica deportiva en el contexto social de la educación superior (Impact of physical activity and sports practice in the social context of higher education). Retos, 37, 742-747. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.67875

Blumrodt J., Desbordes M., & Bodin D. (2013). Professional football clubs and corporate social responsibility. International Journal, 3(3), 205-225.https://doi.org/10.1108/sbm0420110050

Bradish, C., & Cronin, J. J. (2009). Corporate social responsibility in sport. Journal of Sport Management, 23(6), 691-697.

Breitbarth T., & Harris P. (2008). The role of corporate social responsibility in the football business: Towards the development of a conceptual model. European Sport Management Quarterly, 8(2), 179-206. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740802024484

Breitbarth T., Heere B., Walker M., Kellison T., & Heinze K. (2015). Corporate social responsibility in sport. North American Society for Sport Management Conference, 298-299. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/3nd4fHF

Breitbarth T., Walzel S., Anagnostopoulos C., & Van F. (2015). Corporate social responsibility and governance in sport: “Oh, the things you can find, if you don’t stay behind!”. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 15, 254–273. https://doi.org/10.1108/cg0220150025

Breitbarth, T., Hovemann, G., & Walzel, S. (2011). Scoring strategy goals: Measuring corporate social responsibility in professional European football. Thunderbird International Business Review, 53(6), 721737.https://doi.org/10.1108/sd.2012.05628eaa.014

Chang M., Kang J., Ko Y., & Connaughton D. (2017). The effects of perceived team performance and social responsibility on pride and wordofmouth recommendation. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 26(1), 31.Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/2IlpgB3

Chang M., Ko Y., Connaughton D., & Kang J. (2016). The effects of perceived CSR, pride, team identification, and regional attachment: the moderating effect of gender. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 20(2), 145-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2016.1193822

Cobourn S., & Frawley S. (2017). CSR in professional sport: An examination of community models. Managing Sport and Leisure, 22(2), 113-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2017.1402694

Cortés Á., Romero G., Zabala N. (2012). Documento referencial para la implementación de un programa de responsabilidad social empresarial en cooperativas (Trabajo de grado de pregrado, Universidad Ean). Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/3eMtXiU

Devlin M., & Sheehan K. (2018). A “Crucial Catch” examining responses to NFL teams’ corporate social responsibility messaging on Facebook. Communication & Sport, 6(4), 477-498. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479517719683

Extejt M., & Smith E. (2004). Leadership Development through Sports Team Participation, Journal of Leadership Education, 8 (2), 224-237. https://doi.org/10.12806/v8/i2/rf7

François, A., Bayle, E., & Gond, J. P. (2019). A multilevel analysis of implicit and explicit CSR in French and UK professional sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 19(1), 15-37.

Fonseca, I., Bernate, J., Betancourt, M., Barón, B., & Cobo, J. (2019) Developing Social Responsibility in University Students. Proceedings of the 2019 11th International Conference on Education Technology and Computers, 215-218.

García J. (2018). El Pacto Mundial, Punto de Convergencia en la Línea del Tiempo del Desarrollo Sostenible y la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y su Influencia en las Empresas. Dictamen Libre, (23), 71-88. https://doi.org/10.18041/26194244/dl.23.5146

Giulianotti R. (2011). The sport, development and peace sector: A model of four social policy domains. Journal of social policy, 40(4), 757-776. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0047279410000930

Giulianotti, R. (2015). Corporate social responsibility in sport: critical issues and future possibilities. Corporate Governance, 15(2), 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1108/CG-10-2014-0120

Hamil, S., Walters, G., & Watson, L. (2010). The model of governance at FC Barcelona: balancing member democracy, commercial strategy, corporate social responsibility and sporting performance. Soccer & Society, 11(4), 475-504.

Heinze, K. L., Soderstrom, S., & Zdroik, J. (2014). Toward strategic and authentic corporate social responsibility in professional sport: A case study of the Detroit Lions. Journal of Sport Management, 28(6), 672-686. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.20130307

Herrera H. (2011). Responsabilidad social y ética empresarial. Ecoe Ediciones, 658. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/32vTW9u

Huang F., Ye Y., & Kao C. (2015). Developing a novel Intuitionistic Fuzzy Importance–performance Analysis for evaluating corporate social responsibility in sport tourism event. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(19), 6530-6538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2015.04.008

Inoue Y., Funk D., & McDonald H. (2017). Predicting behavioral loyalty through corporate social responsibility: The mediating role of involvement and commitment. Journal of Business Research, 75, 46-56.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.02.005

Kihl, L., Babiak, K., & Tainsky, S. (2014). Evaluating the implementation of a professional sport team’s corporate community involvement initiative. Journal of Sport Management, 28(3), 324-337.https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.20120258

Kim Y., Magnusen M., Weaver A., & Kim M. (2019). Rural community wellbeing through minor league sport. Sport, Business and Management, 9(4), 328-343.https://doi.org/10.1108/sbm1020180092

Leal-Londoño, M., Travé-Molero, R., Medina, F. X., Abadia-Naudí, S., & Sánchez-Bergara, S. (2021). Turismo deportivo: Una oportunidad para los territorios locales en un contexto global. Un estudio Delphi (Sport tourism: an opportunity for local regions in a global context. A Delphi study). Retos, 42, 77-88. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.8669

López-Martínez, R., & Fernández-Fernández, J. L. (2015). Responsabilidad Social Corporativa y Buen Gobierno en los clubes de fútbol españoles. Universia Business Review, (46), 38-53.

Lorgnier, N. G., Chanavat, N., Su, C. J., & O’Rourke, S. M. (2020). Examining the influence of brandbased value congruity: do the values of the International Olympic Committee really matter? Service Business, 14(1), 73-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11628019004091

Mattera M., & Baena V. (2018). The Ball is in Your Court: Using Socially Responsible Actions as an Effective Marketing Tool. In Sports Media, Marketing, and Management: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice, 140-154. https://doi.org/10.4018/9781522554752.ch008

McCullough, B. P., Orr, M., & Watanabe, N. M. (2019). Measuring externalities: The imperative next step to sustainability assessment in sport. Journal of Sport Management, 35(5), 393-402. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.20190254

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D., & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS medicine, 6(7), e1000097. doi:10.1186/2046405341

Monserrat-Gauchi, J., González-Redondo, P., & Campillo-Alhama, C. (2020). La comunicación organizacional en las entidades deportivas náuticas: Propuesta de modelo estratégico y relacional. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, (38), 692-699.

Montazeri A., Talebpour M., Andam R., Kazemnejad A. (2017). Measuring corporate social responsibility in sport industry: Development and validation of measurement scale. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 5 (2), 97-114. https://doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.5.2.97

Moyo, T., Duffett, R., & Knott, B. (2020). Environmental Factors and Stakeholders Influence on Professional Sport Organizations Engagement in Sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility: A South African Perspective. Sustainability, 12 (11), 4504. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114504

Organización Internacional del Trabajo OIT. (2007). Declaración Tripartita de Principios Sobre las Empresas Multinacionales y la Política Social. 3a. International Labour Organization, Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/2ImPJya

Orozco Y., Acevedo M., & Acevedo J. (2013). Responsabilidad Social Empresarial: Teorías, índices, estándares y certificaciones. Cuadernos de administración, 29 (50), 196-206. https://doi.org/10.25100/cdea.v29i50.55

Rayne D., Leckie C., & McDonald H. (2020). Productive partnerships? Driving consumer awareness to action in CSR partnerships. Journal of Business Research, 118, 49-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.037

Sánchez-Sáez, J.A., Segado-Segado, D., & Vidal, A. (2018). Sports events socially responsible as the engine for local development. Journal of Sports Economics & Management 8(3), 172-186.

Schiebel W., & Pöchtrager S. (2003). Corporate ethics as a factor for successthe measurement instrument of the University of Agricultural Sciences (BOKU), Vienna. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 8(2), 116-121. https://doi.org/10.1108/13598540310468715

Schyvinck C., & Willem A. (2018). A typology of causerelated marketing approaches in European professional basketball. Sport Management Review, 21(4), 347-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2017.08.006

Smith A., & Westerbeek H. (2007). Sport as a vehicle for deploying corporate social responsibility. Journal of corporate citizenship, (25), 43-54. https://doi.org/10.9774/gleaf.4700.2007.sp.00007

Sung M., & Lee W. (2016). What makes an effective CSR program? An analysis of the constructs of a causerelated participant sport sponsorship event. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 17 (1), 56-77. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijsms022016004

Vallaeys F. (2006). Breve marco teórico de responsabilidad social universitaria., Responsabilidad Social Universitaria. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/36oQOgO

Viveros J., & Maigual J. (2012). Modelo de responsabilidad social para la empresa privada con ánimo de lucro. Tendencias, 13(1), 116-134. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/3n8oar6

Walker M., & Heere B. (2011). Consumer attitudes toward responsible entities in sport (CARES): Scale development and model testing. Sport Management Review, 14(2), 153-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2010.08.001

Walker M., & Parent M. (2010). Toward an integrated framework of corporate social responsibility, responsiveness, and citizenship in sport. Sport Management Review, 13(3), 198213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2010.03.003

Walzel, S., Robertson, J., & Anagnostopoulos, C. (2018). Corporate social responsibility in professional team sports organizations: An integrative review. Journal of Sport Management, 32(6), 511-530.

Yu C. (2020). The role of CSR in sport consumption decisionmaking. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. https://doi.org/10.1108/mip0220200060

Zhang, Z., & Surujlal, J. (2015). Willingness of sport fans to participate in socially responsible community programmes of professional sport organisations. South African journal for research in sport, physical education and recreation, 37(3), 185-197. Recuperado de: https://bit.ly/36t9RH4

Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Fonseca, I., Bernate, J., & Perez, C. (2022). Modelos de responsabilidad social corporativa en el sector deporte. Una revisión sistemática (Models of corporate social responsibility in the sports sector. A systematic Review). Retos, 43, 1106-1115. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.87911
Sección
Revisiones teóricas