Características de la adherencia y motivos del abandono de las intervenciones basadas en el ejercicio físico en adultos mayores en América Latina: una revisión de alcance (Adherence characteristics and reasons for abandonment of physical exercise-based in

Una revisión de alcance

Autores/as

  • Igor Cigarroa Escuela de kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0418-8787
  • Rafael Zapata-Lamana Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4729-1680
  • Gonzalo Leiva-Gajardo Programa de Magister en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y Deporte, aplicadas al entrenamiento, rehabilitación y reintegro deportivo, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile.
  • Eduardo Vasquez Servicio Especializado en Psiquiatría y Adicciones (SEPyA), Concepción, Chile.
  • Eva Parrado-Romero Departamento de Psicología Básica, Evolutiva y de la Educación, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, España.
  • Jaime Vásquez-Gomez Centro de Investigación de Estudios Avanzados del Maule (CIEAM), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile
  • Cristian Alvarez Quality of Life and Wellness Research Group. Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile
  • Fanny Petermann-Rocha Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
  • Daniel Reyes-Molina 10Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0068-2438

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.89359

Palabras clave:

Envejecido, Ejercicio, Adherencia y Cumplimiento del Tratamiento, América Latina, Revisión de Alcance, (Aged; Exercise; Treatment Adherence and Compliance; Latin America; Scoping Review)

Resumen

Esta revisión describe las características de adherencia y motivos de abandono de las intervenciones basadas en ejercicio físico en adultos mayores en América Latina. Esta revisión de alcance se realizó de acuerdo con la declaración PRISMA. Los artículos fueron buscados en MEDLINE por PubMed, ELSEVIER por SCOPUS y SciELO. Los términos MeSH "Ejercicio", Terapia de ejercicio "y" Anciano "se utilizaron entre 2015 y 2020. Se buscaron artículos en español, inglés y portugués realizados en personas de 65 años o más. Se incluyeron 101 de 4.642 ensayos aleatorizados controlados (ECA), en una muestra total de 5.013 adultos mayores (79% mujeres), con una edad promedio de 68,2 años, que iniciaron sus estudios finalizando 4.312, presentando una adherencia a las intervenciones del 86%. La mayoría de los estudios fueron realizado en adultos mayores sanos, en lugares habilitados para la práctica de actividad física, a cargo de un profesional de actividad física, y las intervenciones se realizaron a través de ejercicio terapéutico grupal. Ningún artículo reportó información sobre el tiempo mínimo de participación a la sesión Sólo el 30% de los artículos informaron la participación mínima de los adultos mayores en la intervención para incluirlos en el análisis del estudio, y el 21% informó el número medio de sesiones. atendidos a la intervención. Los principales motivos de abandono fueron causas personales ajenas a la intervención. Solo el 5% de los artículos reportaron lesión de uno de los participantes (en dos de ellos la lesión estuvo relacionada con la intervención aplicada). Esta revisión caracterizó los programas de ejercicio físico en adultos mayores en América Latina, así como las características de adherencia y los principales motivos de abandono a las intervenciones basadas en ejercicio físico, al resumir la evidencia disponible derivada de ECA.

Abstract. This review describes the adherence characteristics and reasons for abandonment physical exercise-based interventions in older adults in Latin America. This scoping review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Articles were searched in MEDLINE by PubMed, ELSEVIER by SCOPUS and SciELO. The MeSH terms "Exercise", Exercise Therapy" and "Aged" were used between 2015 and 2020. We searched for articles in Spanish, English, and Portuguese carried out in people aged 65 years and over.101 out of 4,642 randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included. A total sample of 5,013 older adults (79% women), with an average age of 68.2 years started their studies and 4,312 finished it, presenting an adherence to the interventions of 86%. Most of the studies were carried out in healthy older adults, in places enabled for the practice of physical activity, in charge of a physical activity professional, and the interventions were performed carried out through group therapeutic exercise. No article reported information on the minimum time of participation to the session to be considered as carried out. Only 30% of the articles reported the minimum participation of older adults in the intervention to include them in the study analysis, and 21% reported the average number of sessions attended to the intervention. The main reasons for abandonment were personal causes unrelated to the intervention. Only 5% of the articles reported injury of one of the participants (in two of them the injury was related to the intervention applied). This review characterized the physical exercise programs in older adults in Latin America, as well the adherence characteristics and the main reasons for abandonment to physical exercise-based interventions, by summarizing available evidence derived from RCTs. 

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2022-04-01

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Cigarroa, I., Zapata-Lamana, R., Leiva-Gajardo, G., Vasquez, E., Parrado-Romero, E., Vásquez-Gomez, J., Alvarez, C., Petermann-Rocha, F., & Reyes-Molina, D. (2022). Características de la adherencia y motivos del abandono de las intervenciones basadas en el ejercicio físico en adultos mayores en América Latina: una revisión de alcance (Adherence characteristics and reasons for abandonment of physical exercise-based in: Una revisión de alcance. Retos, 44, 10–26. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.89359

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