Características y efectos de los programas de ejercicio físico para personas mayores sobrevivientes de cáncer: Una revisión de alcance (Characteristics and effects of physical exercise programs for older cancer survivors: A scoping review)

Autores/as

  • Igor Cigarroa Escuela de kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile.
  • Estefanía Díaz Escuela de kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile.
  • Constanza Ortiz 1 Escuela de kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile.
  • Raquel Otero ARIS 1, Centro de Atención Infantil Temprana, Madrid, España.
  • Irene Cantarero Health Science Faculty, University of Granada, Spain. Sport and Health Research Center (IMUDs), Granada, Spain. Instituto de investigación biosanitaria ibs. GRANADA, Granada, Spain.
  • Fanny Petermann-Rocha Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK. Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.
  • Solange Parra-Soto Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK. Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.
  • Rafael Zapata-Lamana Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile.
  • David Toloza-Ramírez Escuela de Fonoaudiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Rehabilitación, Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Santiago, Chile. Programa de Doctorado en Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.90843

Palabras clave:

Envejecimiento, Sobrevivientes de cáncer, Terapia Física, Revisión de alcance, (Aging; Cancer Survivors; Exercise Therapy; Scoping review)

Resumen

En la literatura existe discrepancia sobre las características y los efectos de los programas basados en el ejercicio físico en sobrevivientes de cáncer (SC) de edad avanzada. Por lo tanto, esta revisión de alcance tuvo como objetivo identificar las características y los efectos de los programas de actividad física en la salud de personas SC de edad avanzada. Esta revisión de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y ensayos clínicos, se realizó considerando las siguientes bases de datos: MEDLINE (de Pubmed), Scopus, Scielo y PEDro, entre los años 2010 y 2020. Los resultados indican que los programas de ejercicio se realizaron en centros de salud (54.2%), y se basaron en ejercicio físico principalmente (74.4%). La extensión de las intervenciones físicas fue entre 3–6 meses (87.5%), se realizaron 2–3 veces por semana (73.1%) con una duración entre 20–60 minutos, y fueron dirigidas por profesionales de salud (94.4%). El impacto sobre la salud con mayores efectos positivos fueron la actividad física, la depresión y la calidad de vida. En conclusión, los programas de ejercitación física para personas SC en edad avanzada, basados en ejercicios aeróbicos son seguros y podrían ser una estrategia terapéutica para mejorar diferentes variables de salud en este grupo de personas.

Abstract. There is a discrepancy about the characteristics and effects of exercise-based programs in older cancer survivors (OCS). Therefore, this scoping review aimed to identify the characteristics and effects of physical activity programs in OCS health. This scoping review followed the PRISMA guidelines and included randomized clinical trials and clinical trials from MEDLINE by PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, and PEDro, published between 2010 and 2020. Results suggest that physical programs were carried out in health centers (54.2%) and were based on physical exercise (74.4%). The length of the exercise interventions was between 3–6 months (87.5%) was performed 2–3 times per week (73.1%) with a duration between 20–60 minutes (78.2%) and was run by health professionals (94.4%). The health outcomes with the most positive effects were physical activity, depression, and quality of life. In conclusion, physical programs for OCS based on aerobic exercises are safe and could be a therapeutic strategy to improve different health markers in OCS. 

Citas

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2022-04-01

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Cigarroa, I., Díaz, E., Ortiz, C., Otero, R., Cantarero, I., Petermann-Rocha, F., Parra-Soto, S., Zapata-Lamana, R., & Toloza-Ramírez, D. (2022). Características y efectos de los programas de ejercicio físico para personas mayores sobrevivientes de cáncer: Una revisión de alcance (Characteristics and effects of physical exercise programs for older cancer survivors: A scoping review). Retos, 44, 370–385. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.90843

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