Perfil sociodemográfico de los adultos mayores físicamente activos según el tipo de actividades de-portivas practicado: gimnasia, actividades acuáticas, yoga, pilates y danza (Sociodemographic profile of physically active older adults according to the type of physical activities practiced: Gymnastic Exercises, Aquatic Activities, Yoga, Pilates and Dance)

Autores/as

  • María Antonia Parra-Rizo 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain) 2 Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Campus of Elche, Miguel Hernandez University (UMH), 03202 Elche, (Spain) Maria.parrar@umh.es, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1986-1148a https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1986-1148
  • Igor Cigarroa 6 Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Católica Silva Henríquez, Santiago, Chile; igorcigarroa@yahoo.es, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0418-8787 7 Universidad Arturo Prat, Victoria, Chile.
  • Sonia Olivera-Sánchez Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences. Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Martir. Torrent, Valencia (Spain) sonia.olivera@mail.ucv.es, https://orcid.org/0009-0004-8039-4376 4 Department of Nursing, Vives University of Applied Sciences, Bruges, (Belgium)
  • Javier Guillem-Saiz 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)
  • Ana Isabel Agustí-López 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain) https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9705-1733
  • Jesús González-Moreno 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3968-8864
  • María Cantero-García 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7716-2257
  • Cindy Fabiana Cordero-Galindez 5 Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana, Bogotá (Colombia). https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7307-7111
  • Rodrigo Andrés Yáñez-Yáñez 8Vinculación con el Medio, CFT-IP Santo Tomás, Punta Arenas, 6200000, (Chile) ryanez8@santotomas.cl

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.102223

Palabras clave:

adultos mayores, envejecimiento, deporte, actividad física, diferencias socioeconómicas, educación, ingresos, genero

Resumen

Introducción. El ejercicio físico mejora la salud psicofísica de los adultos mayores. Sin embargo, existen variables sociodemográficas que favorecen o dificultan la práctica deportiva que han sido escasamente investigadas (educación, ingresos, género y estado civil), ni se ha prestado atención a estas variables en relación con los diferentes deportes practicados (gimnasia, actividades acuáticas, yoga, pilates y danza). Objetivo. Por ello, el objetivo de este estudio ha sido conocer el perfil sociodemográfico de los adultos mayores que realizan algún deporte. Procedimiento. Se utilizó la escala de calidad de vida CUBRECAVI y un cuestionario sociodemográfico en una muestra de 358 personas mayores de 60 años (M = 69,66, DT = 4,74). Resultados. Los resultados han mostrado que entre los mayores que hacen gimnasia hay más participantes que tienen menor cualificación académica (p < 0,001), bajos ingresos (p < 0,001); y mujeres (p = 0,003); y que los solteros y divorciados realizan actividades de danza en mayor proporción que otras actividades (p = 0,004). Conclusiones. En conclusión, la actividad deportiva practicada por los adultos mayores está relacionada con el nivel de educación que tienen, los ingresos que perciben, el género y su estado civil.

Palabras clave: Personas mayores; envejecimiento; deporte, actividad física; diferencias socioeconómicas; educación; ingresos; género.

Abstract. Introduction: Physical exercise enhances the psychophysical well-being of older adults. However, sociodemographic variables that may either facilitate or impede the engagement in physical activities, such as education, income, gender, and marital status, have been insufficiently explored. Furthermore, limited attention has been given to these variables concerning specific physical activities, including gymnastics, aquatic activities, yoga, pilates, and dance. Objective: The aim of this study is to delineate the sociodemographic profile of physically active older adults based on the specific type of physical activity they participate in. Procedure: A sample of 358 individuals aged over 60 years (M = 69.66, SD = 4.74) participated in the study, utilizing the Quality of Life Scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire, specifically the CUBRECAVI. Results: The findings indicate that older adults engaged in gymnastics are more likely to possess lower academic qualifications (p < .001), lower income (p < .001), and be women (p = .003). Additionally, single and divorced individuals participate in dance activities at a higher rate compared to other activities (p = .004).Conclusion: In summary, the choice of physical activity among older adults is associated with their educational level, income, gender, and marital status.

Keywords: older adults; aging; physical activity; sport; socioeconomic differences; education; income; gender.

Biografía del autor/a

María Antonia Parra-Rizo, 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain) 2 Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Campus of Elche, Miguel Hernandez University (UMH), 03202 Elche, (Spain) Maria.parrar@umh.es, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1986-1148a

1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)

 

2 Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Social and Health Sciences, Campus of Elche, Miguel Hernandez University (UMH), 03202 Elche, (Spain)

Maria.parrar@umh.es, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1986-1148

Igor Cigarroa, 6 Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Católica Silva Henríquez, Santiago, Chile; igorcigarroa@yahoo.es, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0418-8787 7 Universidad Arturo Prat, Victoria, Chile.

6 Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de  Salud,  Universidad Católica Silva Henríquez, Santiago, Chile;  igorcigarroa@yahoo.es, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0418-8787

 

7 Universidad Arturo Prat, Victoria, Chile.

Sonia Olivera-Sánchez, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences. Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Martir. Torrent, Valencia (Spain) sonia.olivera@mail.ucv.es, https://orcid.org/0009-0004-8039-4376 4 Department of Nursing, Vives University of Applied Sciences, Bruges, (Belgium)

3 Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences. Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Martir. Torrent, Valencia (Spain) sonia.olivera@mail.ucv.es, https://orcid.org/0009-0004-8039-4376

 

4 Department of Nursing, Vives University of Applied Sciences, Bruges, (Belgium) 

Javier Guillem-Saiz , 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)


1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)

Ana Isabel Agustí-López, 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)


1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)

Jesús González-Moreno, 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)


1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)

María Cantero-García, 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)


1 Faculty of Health Sciences, Valencian International University (VIU), 46002 Valencia, (Spain)

Cindy Fabiana Cordero-Galindez, 5 Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana, Bogotá (Colombia).

5 Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Corporación Universitaria Iberoamericana, Bogotá (Colombia). Cindy.cordero@ibero.edu.cohttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7307-7111

Rodrigo Andrés Yáñez-Yáñez, 8Vinculación con el Medio, CFT-IP Santo Tomás, Punta Arenas, 6200000, (Chile) ryanez8@santotomas.cl

8Vinculación con el Medio, CFT-IP Santo Tomás, Punta Arenas, 6200000, (Chile)

ryanez8@santotomas.cl

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2024-06-01

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Parra-Rizo, M. A., Cigarroa, I., Olivera-Sánchez, S., Guillem-Saiz , J., Agustí-López, A. I., González-Moreno, J., Cantero-García, M., Cordero-Galindez, C. F. ., & Yáñez-Yáñez, R. A. . (2024). Perfil sociodemográfico de los adultos mayores físicamente activos según el tipo de actividades de-portivas practicado: gimnasia, actividades acuáticas, yoga, pilates y danza (Sociodemographic profile of physically active older adults according to the type of physical activities practiced: Gymnastic Exercises, Aquatic Activities, Yoga, Pilates and Dance). Retos, 56, 280–288. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.102223

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