Características y efectos de los programas escolares de actividad física para escolares con trastorno del es-pectro autista: una revisión de alcance (Characteristics and effects of school based physical activity programs for schoolchildren with autism spec-trum disorder: A scoping review)

Autores/as

  • Alejandra Robles Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Camila Gallegos-Abello Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Natalia Ulloa-Campos Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Marcela Cabrera-Castillo Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Rafael Zapata-Lamana Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Andrea Tapia Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Daniel Reyes-Molina Universidad de Concepción https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0068-2438
  • Mapy Chavez-Askins Alcanzando, Inc. Education and Understanding in Autism, Promoting worldwide awareness, Florida, USA https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3575-4967
  • Constanza Ortiz EEscuela de kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Los Ángeles, Chile
  • Igor Cigarroa Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Los Ángeles, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0418-8787

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v49.95002

Palabras clave:

Exercise, Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD, Cognition, Physical Activity, Systematic Review

Resumen

Si bien se han reportado beneficios de la práctica de actividad física en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), en menor medida se conocen las características de los programas realizados en el contexto escolar y sus efectos sobre la salud. El objetivo de esta revisión fue caracterizar los programas escolares de actividad física y sus efectos sobre la salud de escolares con TEA. La revisión se realizó de acuerdo con la declaración PRISMA en las bases de datos, Medline y PsycINFO, entre los años 2010 a 2023. Se analizaron un total de 20 artículos. Se incluyó una muestra total de 683 escolares con TEA (x̄=10,5 años y 73,1% varones). Los escolares con TEA tuvieron un 98,1% de adherencia a los programas. Los programas escolares de actividad física se basaron principalmente en ejercicios aeróbicos, como caminar, trotar, correr y andar en bicicleta (45% de los artículos) con una duración entre 10-16 semanas (55% de los artículos), con una frecuencia de 2-3 veces por semana (60% de los artículos) y con sesiones de 60 minutos (45%). Por otro lado, las variables más estudiadas fueron lenguaje y motricidad (60% de los artículos) y función psicosocial y cognitiva (50% de los artículos); junto con las variables de actividad física y nutricional, fueron en estas donde se encontró un mayor porcentaje de artículos con efectos positivos. Los hallazgos sugieren un perfil de los escolares con TEA y las principales características de los programas escolares de actividad física en escolares con TEA en cuanto a su extensión, frecuencia, duración, intensidad, ubicación y proveedor, así como las variables más evaluadas y con mayores efectos positivos.

Palabras clave: Ejercicio; Trastorno del espectro autista; TEA; Cognición; Actividad física; Revisión de alcance.

Abstract. Although benefits have been reported from the practice of physical activity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to a lesser extent the characteristics of the programs carried out in the school context and their effects on health are known. The objective of this review was to characterize school based physical activity programs and their effects on the health of schoolchildren with ASD. The review was carried out in accordance with the PRISMA statement in the databases, Medline and PsycINFO, between the years 2010 to 2023. A total of 20 articles were analyzed. A total sample of 683 schoolchildren with ASD (x̄=10.5 years and 73.1% male) were included. Schoolchildren with ASD had 98.1% adherence to the programs. The school based physical activity programs were mainly based on aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, running, and cycling (45% of the articles) with a duration between 10-16 weeks (55% of the articles), with a frequency of 2-3 times a week (60% of the articles) and with 60-minute sessions (45%). On the other hand, the most studied variables were language and motor skills (60% of the articles) and psychosocial and cognitive function (50% of the articles); together with the variables of physical and nutritional activity, these were where a higher percentage of articles with positive effects were found. The findings suggest a profile of schoolchildren with ASD and the main characteristics of school based physical activity programs in schoolchildren with ASD in terms of their extension, frequency, duration, intensity, location and provider as well as the variables most frequently evaluated and with the greatest positive effects.

Keywords: Exercise; Autism Spectrum Disorder; ASD; Cognition; Physical Activity; Scoping Review.

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2023-06-28

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Robles, A. ., Gallegos-Abello, C., Ulloa-Campos, N., Cabrera-Castillo, M., Zapata-Lamana, R., Tapia, A., Reyes-Molina, D., Chavez-Askins, M., Ortiz, C., & Cigarroa, I. (2023). Características y efectos de los programas escolares de actividad física para escolares con trastorno del es-pectro autista: una revisión de alcance (Characteristics and effects of school based physical activity programs for schoolchildren with autism spec-trum disorder: A scoping review). Retos, 49, 203–213. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v49.95002

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