Efectos de programas basados en artes marciales sobre rasgos autistas en niños y adolescentes: una revisión sistemática (Effects of martial arts programs based on autistic traits in children and adolescents: a systematic review)

Autores/as

  • Igor Cigarroa Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Los Ángeles 4440000, Chile
  • Cristobal Riquelme-Hernández Escuela de Kinesiología, Departamento de Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Victoria 4720000, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1563-7229
  • Juan Pablo Reyes-Barría Escuela de Kinesiología, Departamento de Salud, Universidad de los Lagos, Puerto Montt 5480000, Chile y Clínica Resilient, Puerto Montt 5480000, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7628-0203
  • Abner Vargas Clínica Resilient, Puerto Montt 5480000, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0909-2127
  • Rafael Zapata-Lamana Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles 4444000, Chile
  • María Aurora Gutiérrez Echavarría Escuela de Educación, Universidad de Concepción, Los Ángeles 4444000, Chile
  • Sonia Sepúlveda-Martin Departamento de Ciencias Clínicas y Preclínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4991-8416
  • David Toloza-Ramirez Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, School of Speech Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, 7591538, Chile y Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3404-9999
  • Sandra Marunotiu Centro de atención integral para niños y niñas con Autismo, Los Ángeles 4444000, Chile

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.100237

Palabras clave:

Autismo, Trastorno del espectro autista, Artes Marciales, Deportes de combate

Resumen

Introducción: La prevalencia del autismo se ha incrementado significativamente. También, se ha evidenciado que las artes marciales son una intervención efectiva en el control de la sintomatología de niños, niñas y adolescentes con TEA. Sin embargo, no existen revisiones enfocadas en sintetizar esta evidencia. Objetivo: Sintetizar la información existente sobre las características de los programas de artes marciales y sus efectos sobre rasgos autistas en niños y adolescentes. Metodología: Revisión sistemática que se adscribe a la declaración Prisma 2020. La búsqueda de información se realizó en las bases de datos Scielo, PubMed, Pedro, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Springer Link, Web of Science y ScienceDirect. Se seleccionaron Ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y no aleatorizados. Resultados: Las artes marciales como intervención terapéutica tuvieron efectos beneficiosos estadísticamente significativos en conductas estereotipadas 100% (5 de 5 estudios), interacción social 100% (3 de 3 estudios), manejo de las emociones 100% (3 de 3 estudios), regulación de la conducta 75% (3 de 4 estudios), problemas conductuales 75% (3 de 4 estudios) y dificultad para comunicarse 75% (3 de 4 estudios). El arte marcial más utilizado como programa de intervención fue el karate. Conclusión: Las áreas más evaluadas en los rasgos autistas son las conductas estereotipadas, problemas conductuales, interacción social y dificultad de la comunicación. Finalmente se observó que los programas de artes marciales tuvieron efectos favorables en rasgos autistas en áreas de habilidades conductuales, habilidades sociales y habilidades comunicativas.

Palabras clave: Autismo; Artes Marciales; Deportes de combate; Karate.

Abstract. Introduction: Over the years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of Autism. It has been shown that martial arts are an effective intervention in controlling the symptoms of children and adolescents. However, there needs to be reviews that focus on synthesizing this evidence. Objective: Synthesize the current information on the effects and characteristics of carrying out martial arts programs and their effects on autistic traits in children and adolescents. Methodology: Systematic review that adheres to the Prisma 2020 declaration. The search was carried out in the Scielo, PubMed, Pedro, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Springer Link, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases, and randomized and non-randomized clinical trials were selected. Results: Martial arts as a therapeutic intervention had statistically significant beneficial effects on stereotyped behavior 100% (5 of 5 studies), social interaction 100% (3 of 3 studies), emotion management 100% (3 of 3 studies), regulation of behavior 75% (3 of 4 studies), behavioral problems 75% (3 of 4 studies) and difficulty communicating 75% (3 of 4 studies). The most widely used martial art as a therapeutic intervention program was karate. Conclusion: The most evaluated areas in autistic treats are stereotyped behaviors, behavioral problems, social interaction, and communication difficulties. Finally, it was observed that the martial arts programs had favorable effects on ASD symptoms in behavioral, social, and communication skills.

Key words: Autism; Martial Arts; Combat Sports, Karate.

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2024-06-01

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Cigarroa, I., Riquelme-Hernández , C., Reyes-Barría , J. P., Vargas, A., Zapata-Lamana, R. ., Gutiérrez Echavarría, M. A. ., Sepúlveda-Martin, S. ., Toloza-Ramírez, D. ., & Maruntoiu, S. . (2024). Efectos de programas basados en artes marciales sobre rasgos autistas en niños y adolescentes: una revisión sistemática (Effects of martial arts programs based on autistic traits in children and adolescents: a systematic review). Retos, 56, 167–178. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.100237

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