Frecuencia cardiaca y niveles de actividad física durante recreos escolares. Un estudio descriptivo (Heart rate and physical activity levels during school recess. A descriptive study)

  • Marta Hellín-Martínez Universidad de Murcia
  • José Vicente García-Jiménez Universidad de Murcia
  • Juan José García-Pellicer Universidad de Murcia
  • Manuel Alfonso-Asencio Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Isabel I
Palabras clave: actividad física, recreos, MVPA, Educación Física., (physical activity, recess, MVPA, Physical Education)), (physical activity, recess, MVPA, Physical Education)

Resumen

 

Los objetivos de este estudio fueron describir los niveles de actividad física (AF) en los escolares durante los recreos sin intervención, analizarlos en función del género y examinar la contribución de este tipo de recreo a las recomendaciones sobre intensidad de la AF en los recreos. Materiales y métodos. La muestra estaba compuesta por 32 alumnos (14 niños, 10,78±0,69; 18 niñas, 10,4±0,80) de un centro de Educación Primaria. La recogida de datos tuvo lugar durante 8 recreos y se emplearon pulsómetros Polar Team 2. Resultados y discusión. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas en el nivel de AF en valores de intensidad de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV %) en función del género de los escolares, alcanzando los niños (63,25±23,15%) valores más altos que las niñas (43,74±26,00%). En cuanto a las recomendaciones de AF en los recreos, un porcentaje mayor de niños (81,33±6,20%) las alcanzan con respecto a las niñas (51,95±6,79%). Estos recreos contribuyen en un 24,79±7,01% con las recomendaciones de AF en valores AFMV diarias. Conclusiones. Los niveles de AFMV en los escolares durante el recreo son medios-bajos. Los niños participan durante el tiempo de recreo con una intensidad significativamente mayor que las niñas. Es necesario estudiar qué variables influyen en el aumento de los niveles de AF en valores AFMV en las niñas, las cuales se muestran más sedentarias. 

Abstract: The goals of this study were to describe the levels of physical activity (PA) in children during recess without intervention, analyze them according to gender and examine the contribution of this type of recess to the recommendations on PA intensity during recess. Materials and methods. The sample consisted of 32 students (14 boys, 10,78 ± 0,69; 18 girls, 10,4 ± 0,80) from a Primary Education school. Data collection took place during 8 recess and Polar Team 2 heart rate monitors were used. Results and discussion. Results show significant differences in the level of PA in intensity values from moderate to vigorous (MVPA%) depending on the gender of the children, with boys (63,25 ± 23,15%) reaching higher values than girls (43,74 ± 26,00%). Regarding PA recommendations during recesses, a higher percentage of boys (81,33 ± 6,20%) reach them compared to girls (51,95 ± 6,79%). Recess contribute 24,79 ± 7,01% to the PA recommendations in daily MVPA values. Conclusions. MVPA levels in children during recess are medium-low. Boys participate during recess time with a significantly higher intensity than girls. It is necessary to study what variables influence the increase in PA levels in MVPA values in girls, who are more sedentary.

Citas

Aznar, S., & Webster, T. (2006). Actividad física y salud en la infancia y la adolescencia. Guía para todas las personas que participan en su educación. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia.

Beltrán-Carrillo, V. J., Devís-Devís, J., & Peiró-Velert, C. (2012). Actividad física y sedentarismo en adolescentes de la Comunidad Valenciana. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte/International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport, 12(45), 123-137.

Beltrán-Carrillo, V. J., y Devís-Devís, J. (2019). El pensamiento del alumnado inactivo sobre sus experiencias negativas en educación física: los discursos del rendimiento, salutismo y masculinidad hegemónica. RICYDE. Revista internacional de ciencias del deporte. 55(15), 20-34.

Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology, 7(3), 269–297. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.7.3.269

Dobbins, M., Husson, H., DeCorby, K., & LaRocca, R. L. (2013). School‐based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (2).

Domenech, J. F. (2017). Apoyo a la autonomía y ejercicio físico en el tiempo de recreo. (Tesis doctoral). Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Elche.

Dorovolomo J. (2020) Gender Differences in Recess Play in Five Fiji Primary Schools. In: Dorovolomo J., Lingam G. (eds) Leadership, Community Partnerships and Schools in the Pacific Islands. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6483-3_8

Escalante, Y., García-Hermoso, A., Backx, K., & Saavedra, J. M. (2014). Playground designs to increase physical activity levels during school recess: A systematic review. Health Education y Behavior, 41, 138-144. doi:10.1177/1090198113490725

Fisette, J. L. (2013). 'Are you listening?': adolescent girls voice how they negotiate selfidentified barriers to their success and survival in physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18, 184-203.

Frago, J.M. (2015). Niveles de actividad física en escolares de educación primaria: actividad física habitual, clases de educación física y recreos. (Tesis doctoral). Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza.

Frago-Calvo, J. M., Pardo, B. M., García-Gonzalez, L., Solana, A. A., & Casterad, J. Z. (2017). Physical activity levels during unstructured recess in Spanish primary and secondary schools. European Journal of Human Movement, 38, 40-52.

Gómez, S. F., Lorenzo, L. Ribes, C., & Homs, C. (2019). Estudio Pasos 2019. Barcelona, Gasol Foundation.

Guthold, R., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., & Bull, F. C. (2020). Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: A pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1·6 million participants. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(1), 23-35. doi:10.1016/s2352-4642(19)30323-2

Hellin, M., Garcia-Jimenez, J. V., & Garcia-Pellicer, J. J. (2019). Intensity of Physical Education lessons in children according to the type of activity: soccer, badminton, aerobics and motor skills. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(1), 603-610.

Huberty, J. L., Siahpush, M., Beighle, A., Fuhrmeister, E., Silva, P., & Welk, G. (2011). Ready for recess: a pilot study to increase physical activity in elementary school children. Journal of School Health, 81(5), 251-257.

Kobel, S., Kettner, S., Lämmle, C., & Steinacker, J. M. (2017). Physical activity of German children during different segments of the school day. Journal of Public Health, 25(1), 29-35.

Latorre-Román, P.A., Martínez-Redondo, M., Salas-Sánchez J., García-Pinillos, F., & Pérez-Jiménez, I. (2017). Physical activity during recess in elementary school: gender differences and influence of weight status. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 39(3): 57 – 66.

McKenzie, T. L., Marshall, S. J., Sallis, J. F., & Conway, T. L. (2000). Leisure-time physical activity in school environments: an observational study using SOPLAY. Preventive medicine, 30(1), 70-77.

Mota, J., Silva, P., Santos, M.P., Ribeiro, J.C., Oliveira, J., & Duarte, J.A. (2005) Physical activity and school recess time: Differences between the sexes and the relationship between children’s playground physical activity and habitual physical activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3), 269-275. doi: 10.1080/02640410410001730124.

Nakagawa, S., & Cuthill, I. C. (2007). Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists. Biological reviews, 82(4), 591-605.

Nettlefold, L., McKay, H. A., Warburton, D. E. R., McGuire, K. A., Bredin, S. S. D., & Naylor, P. J. (2011). The challenge of low physical activity during the school day: at recess, lunch and in physical education. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(10), 813-819.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2010). Recomendaciones mundiales sobre actividad física para la salud. Organización Mundial de la Salud: Ginebra. Recuperado de http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789243599977_spa.pdf?ua=1

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2015). Ingesta de azucares para adultos y niños. Organización Mundial de la Salud. Recuperado en: https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/sugars_intake/es/

Organización Mundial de la Salud (2016). Sobrepeso y obesidad infantiles. Estrategia mundial sobre régimen alimentario, actividad física y salud. Comunicado de prensa. Londres. Recuperado de: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/es/

Orgnaización Mundial de la Salud (2020). WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. World Health Organization. Recuperado de: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/336656/9789240015128-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Pastor-Vicedo, J. C., Martínez-Martinez, J., López-Polo, M., & Prieto-Ayuso, A. (2020). Recreos activos como estrategia de promoción de la actividad física: una revisión sistemática. Retos, 40, 135-144. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v1i40.82102

Pawlowski, C. S., Andersen, H. B., Arvidsen, J., & Schipperijn, J. (2019). Changing recess geographies: children’s perceptions of a schoolyard renovation project promoting physical activity. Children's Geographies, 17(6), 664-675.

Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (PAGAC). (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report, 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008, A1-H14. Recuperado de https://www.europarc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Physical-Activity-Guidelines-Advisory-Committee-Report-2008.pdf

Ramos, P., Jiménez-Iglesias, A., Rivera, F., & Moreno, C. (2016). Evolución de la práctica de la actividad física en los adolescentes españoles. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte/International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport, 16(62), 335-353.

Ridgers ND, Stratton G, & Fairclough SJ (2006). Physical activity levels of children during school playtime. Sports & Medicine, 36: 359–371. doi: 10.2165/ 00007256-200636040-00005.

Ridgers, N.D., Tóth, M., & Uvacsek, M. (2009). Physical activity levels of Hungarian children during school recess. Preventive Medicine, 49, 410–412. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed. 2009.08.008.

Ridgers, N. D., Fairclough, S. J., & Stratton, G. (2010). Variables associated with children's physical activity levels during recess: the A-CLASS project. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 74.

Ridgers, N. D., Saint‐Maurice, P. F., Welk, G. J., Siahpush, M., & Huberty, J. (2011). Differences in physical activity during school recess. Journal of School Health, 81(9), 545-551.

Ridgers, N.D., Stratton, G., & Fairclough, S. J. (2005). Assessing physical activity during recess using accelerometry. Preventive Medicine, 41, 102-107.

Rooney, L., & McKee, D. (2018). Contribución de la educación física y el recreo hacia la actividad física general de los niños de 8-11 años. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 10(2), 303-316.

Saint-Maurice, P. F., Welk, G. J., Silva, P., Siahpush, M., & Huberty, J. (2011). Assessing children’s physical activity behaviors at recess: a multi-method approach. Pediatric Exercise Science, 23(4), 585-599.

Springer, A.E., Tanguturi, Y., Ranjit, N., Skala, K.A., & Kelder, S. (2013). Physical activity during recess in low-income 3rd grade students in Texas. American Journal of Health Behavior, 37(3), 318-324.

Stratton, G., & Mullan, E. (2003).The effect of playground markings on children's physical activity levels. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto, 3, 137. Retrieved from http://www.fade.up.pt/rpcd/_arquivo/artigos_soltos/vol.3_nr.2/6.physical.pdf

Stratton, G. (2000). Promoting children’s physical activity in primary school: An intervention study using playground markings. Ergonomics, 43, 1538–1546. doi:10.1080/001401300750003961

Tercedor, P., Segura-Jiménez, V., Ávila García, M., & Huertas-Delgado, F. J. (2019). Physical activity during school recess: A missed opportunity to be active? Health Education Journal, 78(8), 988–999. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896919859044

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2018). Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.Washington. Recuperado de https://health.gov/paguidelines/second-edition/pdf/Physical_Activity_Guidelines_2nd_edition.pdf

Van Kann, D. H., De Vries, S. I., Schipperijn, J., De Vries, N. K., Jansen, M. W., & Kremers, S. P. (2017). A Multicomponent Schoolyard Intervention Targeting Children’s Recess Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Effects After 1 Year. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 14(11), 866-875.

Verstraete, S. J., Cardon, G. M., De Clercq, D. L., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. M. M. (2006). Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment. European Journal of Public Health, 16, 415-419.

Zask, A., van Beurden, E., Barnett, L., Brooks, L. O., & Dietrich, U. C. (2001). Active school playgrounds—myth or reality? Results of the “move it groove it” project. Preventive medicine, 33(5), 402-408.

Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Hellín-Martínez, M., García-Jiménez, J., García-Pellicer, J., & Alfonso-Asencio, M. (2022). Frecuencia cardiaca y niveles de actividad física durante recreos escolares. Un estudio descriptivo (Heart rate and physical activity levels during school recess. A descriptive study). Retos, 43, 422-427. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88648
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas