Actividad física en tiempo libre en estudiantes universitarios y transición escolar a la universidad desde las teorías de comportamiento: una revisión sistemática (Leisure-time in physical activity in university students and school transition to universi

Palabras clave: Estudiantes Universitarios, Adulto jóven, transición escolar a la universidad, actividad física en tiempo libre, intención de ser físicamente activo, predictores motivacionales, teorías comportamentales, (university students, behavioral theories, physical activity, school transition, intention, physically active)

Resumen

Introducción: Cambios en las conductas o adopción de estilos de vida poco saludables están presentes con la evolución de la edad y la modificación de entornos educativos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo identificar la evidencia científica existente en torno al comportamiento hacia la actividad física en tiempo libre y la evolución de la intención de ser físicamente activo durante la transición escolar a la universidad en estudiantes universitarios desde la Teoría de la Autodeterminación, la Teoría de Comportamiento Planeado y el Modelo Trans-Contextual. Método: 472 artículos originales en SPORTDiscus y búsqueda manual, hasta junio del 2019, de los cuales 54 estudios cumplieron criterios de inclusión. La Teoría de la Autodeterminación fue la más implementada en los estudios seleccionados. Resultados: La combinación de teorías ha ampliado la posibilidad de analizar el comportamiento hacia la actividad física desde otros constructos. Conclusiones: Asociaciones significativas y positivas entre el apoyo social, la satisfacción de necesidades psicológicas básicas y la motivación autodeterminada, favorecen la intención y la práctica real de la actividad física, si se aminoran las barreras percibidas y se tiene en cuenta las diferencias de género y de contexto; los procesos de transición escolar favorecen la adherencia hacia un estilo de vida activo, si se cuenta con experiencias positivas percibidas en la clase de educación física, la actividad física extraescolar y la actividad física promovida en el entorno universitario. 

Abstract. Introduction: Changes in behaviors or adoption of unhealthy lifestyles are present with the evolution of age and the modification of educational environments. This review aims to identify the existing scientific evidence around the behavior toward physical activity in leisure time and the evolution of the intention to be physically active during the school transition to university in university students from the Theory of Self-determination, the Theory of Behavior Planned and the Trans-Contextual Model. Method: 472 original articles in SPORTDiscus and manual search, up to June 2019, of which 54 studies met inclusion criteria. Results: The Self-determination Theory was the most widely implemented in the selected studies. The combination of theories has expanded the possibility of analyzing behavior towards physical activity from other constructs. Conclusions: Significant and positive associations between social support, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined motivation, favor the intention and actual practice of physical activity, if perceived barriers are reduced and gender and context differences are taken into account; School transition processes favor adherence to an active lifestyle, if there are positive experiences perceived in physical education class, extracurricular physical activity and physical activity promoted in the university environment.

Biografía del autor/a

Mabel Gómez-Mazorra, Universidad del Tolima
Docente del Departamento de Psicopedagogía, Programa de Licenciatura en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación, Universidad del Tolima, Colombia
Tomás Reyes-Amigo, Universidad Playa Ancha, Valparaiso

Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte

Departamento de Educación Física

Laboratorio de Investigación en Actividad Física y Deporte

Centro de Estudios Avanzados

Hernán Gilberto Tovar Torres, Universidad del Tolima

Departamento de Psicopedagogía

Programa de Licenciatura en Educación Física, Recreación y Deporte.

Universidad del Tolima, Colombia.

David Sánchez-Oliva, Universidad de Extremadura

Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte

Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, España.

Antonio Labisa-Palmeira, Universidad Lusofona de Humanidades y Tecnologías

Facultad de Educación Física y Deporte

Universidad de Lusófona de Humanidades y Tecnología, Lisboa, Portugal.

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Gómez-Mazorra, M., Reyes-Amigo, T., Tovar Torres, H., Sánchez-Oliva, D., & Labisa-Palmeira, A. (2022). Actividad física en tiempo libre en estudiantes universitarios y transición escolar a la universidad desde las teorías de comportamiento: una revisión sistemática (Leisure-time in physical activity in university students and school transition to universi. Retos, 43, 699-712. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.89693
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas