Efecto del Phlebodium Decumanum sobre el daño muscular, inflamación y cortisol durante un mesociclo precompetitivo en Selección Nacional de Voleibol (Effect of Phlebodium Decumanum on muscle damage, inflammation and cortisol during a precompetitive mesocycle in a National Volleyball Team)


  • Juan José García Verazaluce Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Organización Deportiva https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7128-079X
  • Rafael Guisado-Barrilao Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud
  • Elizabeth Llera Figueroa Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Preparatoria 9
  • Germán Hernández-Cruz Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Organización Deportiva https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0661-7840
  • Blanca R. Rangel-Colmenero Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Organización Deportiva https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5209-772X
  • Francisco M. Ocaña-Peinado Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Estadística e Investigación Operativa
  • José Raúl Hoyos-Flores Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Organización Deportiva https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1486-4814
  • Daniel Jerez-Mayorga Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad Ciencias de la Rehabilitación https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6878-8004
  • Isabel María Guisado-Requena Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Facultad de Enfermería de Albacete, Departamento de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Terapia Ocupacional https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6365-9070



Palabras clave:

Inflamación, Cortisol, Antioxidantes, Respuesta inflamatoria, Daño muscular


Altas carga de entrenamiento de un mesociclo competitivo, pueden no ser asimiladas de forma correcta por atletas, pudiendo ocasionar desequilibrio endocrino, daño muscular e inflamación. La suplementación con antioxidantes como el Phlebodium Decumanum (PHL), puede proteger ante estos desequilibrios. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto del PHL sobre la fatiga de un mesociclo precompetitivo en voleibolistas. Veinticuatro voleibolistas divididos en dos grupos (experimental y control) participaron en este estudio. El grupo experimental se suplementó con tres capsulas de PHL por la mañana y tres por la tarde por 20 días. Se efectuaron tomas de sangre antes del entrenamiento, al finalizar la tercera semana y al finalizar la cuarta semana para evaluar creatin kinasa (CK), interleucina 6 (IL-6), factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa (TNF-α), interleucina 10 (IL-10) y cortisol. Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo (p < .05) en la tercera toma de Cortisol en el grupo control. El grupo experimental solo se observó un aumento significativo (p < .05) en la tercera toma para IL-10. Además, se observó una diferencia significativa (p < .05) entre los grupos para CK en la segunda toma, así como cambios moderados (ES > 0.5; 90%IC) para CK, IL-6 y TNF-α. En conclusión, la suplementación con PHL durante un mesociclo precompetitivo en jugadores de voleibol mostro efectos protectores beneficiosos sobre el daño muscular, modulación inflamatoria y respuesta del cortisol ocasionado por la fatiga.

Palabras clave: Inflamación, Cortisol, Antioxidantes, Respuesta inflamatoria, Daño muscular.

Abstract. The severe training load of a competitive mesocycle may not be assimilated correctly by athletes, and can provoke endocrine imbalance, muscle damage and inflammation. Supplementation with antioxidants such as Phlebodium Decumanum (PHL) helps protect against such imbalances. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of PHL on the fatigue during a precompetitive mesocycle in volleyball players. Twenty-four male volleyball players were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group was supplemented with three PHL capsules in the morning and three in the afternoon for 20 days. Blood samples were taken before training, at the end of the third week and at the end of the fourth week to evaluate creatine kinase (CK), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and cortisol. The results show the control group, the third Cortisol were significantly increased (p < .05). In the experimental group, however, a significant increase (p < .05) was only observed in the third IL-10 value. In addition, significant differences (p < .05) were observed between the control and experimental groups in the second CK. Furthermore, there were moderate variations (effect size, ES > 0.5; 90% CI) in CK, IL-6 and TNF-α. In conclusion, PHL supplementation during a precompetitive mesocycle by volleyball players protects against the muscle damage, inflammatory modulation and cortisol response caused by fatigue.

Keywords: Inflammation, Cortisol, Antioxidants, Inflammatory response, Muscle damage.


American College of Sports Medicine (2018). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Antonioni, A., Fantini, C., Dimauro, I., & Caporossi, D. (2019). Redox homeostasis in sport: do athletes really need antiox-idant support?. Research in Sports Medicine, 27(2), 147–165.

Araujo, N. C., Neto, A. M. M., Fujimori, M., Bortolini, M. S., Justino, A. B., Honorio-França, A. C., & Luzía França, E. (2019). Immune and Hormonal Response to High-intensity Exercise During Orienteering. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(12), 768–773.

Banfi, G., Colombini, A., Lombardi, G., & Lubkowska, A. (2012). Metabolic markers in sports medicine. In G. S. Makow-ski (Ed.), Advances in Clinical Chemistry (pp. 1-54). Massachusetts: Academic Press, Elsevier.

Bentley, D. J., Ackerman, J., Clifford, T., & Slattery, K. S. (2015). Acute and Chronic Effects of Antioxidant Supplementa-tion on Exercise Performance. In M. Lamprecht (Ed.), Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition. Florida: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.

Bethin, K. E., Vogt, S. K., & Muglia, L. J. (2000). Interleukin-6 is an essential, corticotropin-releasing hormone-independent stimulator of the adrenal axis during immune system activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienc-es, 97(16), 9317-9322.

Bourdon, P. C., Cardinale, M., Murray, A., Gastin, P., Kellmann, M., Varley, M. C., Gabbett, T. J., Coutts, A. J., Bur-gess, D. J., Gregson, W., & Cable, N. T. (2017). Monitoring athlete training loads: consensus statement. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(S2), S2-161.

Brancaccio, P., Lippi, G., & Maffulli, N. (2010). Biochemical markers of muscular damage. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 48(6), 757-767.

Brandt, C., & Pedersen, B. K. (2010). The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2010, 520258.

Buchheit, M. (2008). The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: accuracy for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(2), 365-374.

Budde, H., Machado, S., Ribeiro, P., & Wegner, M. (2015). The cortisol response to exercise in young adults. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 13.

Chamera, T., Spieszny, M., Klocek, T., Kostrzewa-Nowak, D., Nowak, R., Lachowicz, M., Buryta, R., Ficek, K., Eider, J., Moska, W., & Cięszczyk, P. (2015). Post-Effort Changes in Activity of Traditional Diagnostic Enzymatic Markers in Football Players’ Blood. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 34(2), 179-190.

Chazaud, B. (2016). Inflammation during skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodeling: application to exercise-induced muscle damage management. Immunology and Cell Biology, 94(2), 140-145.

Chernoff, A. E., Granowitz, E. V., Shapiro, L., Vannier, E., Lonnemann, G., Angel, J. B., Kennedy, J. S., Rabson, A. R., Wolff, S. M., & Dinarello, C. A. (1995). A randomized, controlled trial of IL-10 in humans. Inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production and immune responses. The Journal of Immunology, 154(10), 5492-5499.

Corzo, V., Aguilar Cordero, M. J., Galván, C., Segura Millán, D., Miranda León, M. T., Castillo Rueda, G., & Guisado Barrilao, R. (2014). Beneficios de la ingesta del Phlebodium decumanum sobre el daño muscular al efectuar ejercicio físi-co intenso en sujetos sedentarios. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 29(6), 1408-1418.

Costello, J. T., Rendell, R. A., Furber, M., Massey, H. C., Tipton, M. J., Young, J. S., & Corbett, J. (2018). Effects of acute or chronic heat exposure, exercise and dehydration on plasma cortisol, IL-6 and CRP levels in trained males. Cyto-kine, 110, 277–283.

Coutts, A. J., & Reaburn, P. (2008). Monitoring changes in rugby league players' perceived stress and recovery during intensified training. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106(3), 904-916.

Coutts, A. J., Crowcroft, S., & Kempton, T. (2021). Developing athlete monitoring systems: theoretical basis and practical applications. In M. Kellmann & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Recovery and Well-being in Sport and Exercise (pp. 17-31). London: Routledge.

Coutts, A. J., Reaburn, P., Piva, T. J., & Rowsell, G. J. (2007). Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players. Euro-pean Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(3), 313-324.

Coutts, A., Reaburn, P., Piva, T. J., & Murphy, A. (2007). Changes in selected biochemical, muscular strength, power, and endurance measures during deliberate overreaching and tapering in rugby league players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(2), 116-124.

Crowther, F., Sealey, R., Crowe, M., Edwards, A., & Halson, S. (2017). Team sport athletes' perceptions and use of recov-ery strategies: a mixed-methods survey study. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 9, 6.

Davies, C. T., & Few, J. D. (1973). Effects of exercise on adrenocortical function. Journal of Applied Physiology, 35(6), 887-891.

de Jesus Pires de Moraes, A., Andreato, L. V., Branco, B. H. M., da Silva, E. L., Gonçalves, M. A., Dos Santos, R. Z., Becker, A. M., da Silveira Cavalcante, L., da Silva Casagrande, F., & Benetti, M. (2018). Effects of N-acetylcysteine supplementation on cellular damage and oxidative stress indicators in volleyball athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 14(5), 802–809.

Díaz-Castro, J., Guisado, R., Kajarabille, N., García, C., Guisado, I. M., De Teresa, C., & Ochoa, J. J. (2012). Phlebodi-um decumanum is a natural supplement that ameliorates the oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling induced by strenuous exercise in adult humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(8), 3119-3128.

Dupuy, O., Douzi, W., Theurot, D., Bosquet, L., & Dugué, B. (2018). An Evidence-Based Approach for Choosing Post-exercise Recovery Techniques to Reduce Markers of Muscle Damage, Soreness, Fatigue, and Inflammation: A System-atic Review With Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 403.

Edwards, R. H. (1981). Human muscle function and fatigue. In R. Porter & J. Whelan (Eds.), Human muscle fatigue: Physio-logical Mechnisms; CIBA Foundation Symposium 82 (pp. 1-18). London: Pitman Medical.

Fatouros, I. G., & Jamurtas, A. Z. (2016). Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: opportuni-ties for optimizing performance. Journal of Inflammation Research, 9, 175–186.

Fernández, E. E., Barrilao, R. G., de Teresa Galván, C., Hervás, J. L. A., Corzo, M. D. C. V., & Morales, C. G. (2005). Aporte de Phlebodium Decumanum y acondicionamiento físico-salud para incremento de fuerza-potencia de miembro inferior: estrategias preventivas. MD. Revista Científica de Medicina del Deporte, 2, 3-10.

Finsterer, J. (2012). Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 13(1), 218.

Gabbett, T. J., Nassis, G. P., Oetter, E., Pretorius, J., Johnston, N., Medina, D., Rodas, G., Myslinski, T., Howells, D., Beard, A., & Ryan, A. (2017). The athlete monitoring cycle: a practical guide to interpreting and applying training mon-itoring data. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(20), 1451–1452.

Galbo, H. (1981). Endocrinology and metabolism in exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(4), 203-211.

García-Cardona, D. M., Landázuri, P., Ayala-Zuluaga, C. F., & Restrepo Cortes, B. (2022). Marcadores bioquímicos de estrés oxidativo en jugadoras universitarias de voleibol. Efecto del consumo de Passiflora edulis (Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in female volleyball players. Effect of consumption of Passiflora edulis). Retos, 43, 603–612.

García-Dávila, M., Gutiérrez-Soto, G., Estrada-Díaz, S. A., González-Martínez, B. E., Rodríguez-Bies, E., & Rangel-Colmenero, B. R. (2017). Protección antioxidante de zarzamora para disminuir daño muscular en atletas de elite. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 26(2), 157-163.

García Verazaluce, J. J., Vargas Corzo, M. D. C., Aguilar Cordero, M. J., Ocaña Peinado, F., Sarmiento Ramírez, Á., & Guisado Barrilao, R. (2015). Efecto del Phlebodium decumanum y de la coenzima Q10 sobre el rendimiento deportivo en jugadores profesionales de voleibol. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 31(1), 401-414.

Gattuso, M. A., Cortadi, A. A., & Gattuso, S. J. (2008). Caracteres morfoanatómicos de especies de Phlebodium. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 7(1), 10-17.

González-Jurado, J. A., De Teresa, C., Molina, E., Guisado, R., & Naranjo, J. (2009). Efecto del Phlebodium Decumanum sobre los cambios en niveles plasmáticos de testosterona y cortisol inducidos por el ejercicio en sujetos no entrenados. Revista Médica de Chile, 137(4), 497-503.

González-Jurado, J. A., Pradas, F., Molina, E. S., & de Teresa, C. (2011). Effect of Phlebodium decumanum on the im-mune response induced by training in sedentary university students. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(2), 315-322.

Halson, S. L. (2014). Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Medicine, 44(2), 139-147.

Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medi-cine and exercise science. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(1), 3-13.

Impellizzeri, F. M., Marcora, S. M., & Coutts, A. J. (2019). Internal and external training load: 15 years on. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 14(2), 270-273.

Leelarungrayub, D., Khansuwan, R., Pothongsunun, P., & Klaphajone, J. (2011). N-acetylcysteine supplementation con-trols total antioxidant capacity, creatine kinase, lactate, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha against oxidative stress induced by graded exercise in sedentary men. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2011, 329643.

Lepers, R., Maffiuletti, N. A., Rochette, L., Brugniaux, J., & Millet, G. Y. (2002). Neuromuscular fatigue during a long-duration cycling exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(4), 1487-1493.

Martín-Pozo, L., Zafra-Gómez, A., Cantarero-Malagón, S., & Vilchez, J. L. (2019). Analysis of Phlebodium decumanum Fronds by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography by Ultraviolet-Visible and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC–UV–VIS–QTOF–MS/MS). Analytical Letters, 52(13), 2107-2132.

McLaren, S. J., Macpherson, T. W., Coutts, A. J., Hurst, C., Spears, I. R., & Weston, M. (2018). The relationships be-tween internal and external measures of training load and intensity in team sports: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(3), 641-658.

Montgomery, P. G., Pyne, D. B., Cox, A. J., Hopkins, W. G., Minahan, C. L., & Hunt, P. H. (2008). Muscle damage, inflammation, and recovery interventions during a 3-day basketball tournament. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(5), 241-250.

Nishizawa, M., Hara, T., Miura, T., Fujita, S., Yoshigai, E., Ue, H., Hayashi, Y., Kwon, A. H., Okumura, T., & Isaka, T. (2011). Supplementation with a flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract influences the inflammatory status of young athletes. Phytotherapy Research : PTR, 25(10), 1486–1493.

Nieman, D. C., Stear, S. J., Castell, L. M., & Burke, L. M. (2010). A–Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance: part 15. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(16), 1202-1205.

Noakes, T. D. (2000). Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance ath-letic performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(3), 123-145.

Nocella, C., Cammisotto, V., Pigozzi, F., Borrione, P., Fossati, C., D'Amico, A., Cangemi, R., Peruzzi, M., Gobbi, G., Ettorre, E., Frati, G., Cavarretta, E., Carnevale, R., & SMiLe Group (2019). Impairment between Oxidant and Antiox-idant Systems: Short- and Long-term Implications for Athletes' Health. Nutrients, 11(6), 1353.

Ostrowski, K., Rohde, T., Asp, S., Schjerling, P., & Pedersen, B. K. (1999). Pro‐and anti‐inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 515(1), 287-291.

Peake, J. M., Neubauer, O., Della Gatta, P. A., & Nosaka, K. (2017). Muscle damage and inflammation during recovery from exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(3), 559–570.

Pedersen, B. K. (1991). Influence of physical activity on the cellular immune system: mechanisms of action. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 12(S1), S23-S29.

Pedersen, B. K., & Toft, A. D. (2000). Effects of exercise on lymphocytes and cytokines. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(4), 246-251.

Pedersen, B. K., Akerstrom, T. C., Nielsen, A. R., & Fischer, C. P. (2007). Role of myokines in exercise and metabolism. Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(3), 1093-1098.

Petersen, A. M. W., & Pedersen, B. K. (2005). The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(4), 1154-1162.

Punzón, C., Alcaide, A., & Fresno, M. (2003). In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Phlebodium decumanum. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor and soluble TNF receptors. International Immunopharmacology, 3(9), 1293-1299.

Raastad, T., Bjøro, T., & Hallen, J. (2000). Hormonal responses to high-and moderate-intensity strength exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(1), 121-128.

Slattery, K., Bentley, D., & Coutts, A. J. (2015). The role of oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems during exercise stress in athletes: implications of antioxidant supplementation on physiological adaptation during intensi-fied physical training. Sports Medicine, 45(4), 453–471.

Sheppard, J. M., Gabbett, T., Taylor, K. L., Dorman, J., Lebedew, A. J., & Borgeaud, R. (2007). Development of a re-peated-effort test for elite men’s volleyball. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2(3), 292-304.

Soligard, T., Schwellnus, M., Alonso, J. M., Bahr, R., Clarsen, B., Dijkstra, H. P., Gabbett, T., Gleeson, M., Hägglund, M., Hutchinson, M. R., Janse van Rensburg, C., Khan, K. M., Meeusen, R., Orchard, J. W., Pluim, B. M., Raftery, M., Budgett, R., & Engebretsen, L. (2016). How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consen-sus statement on load in sport and risk of injury. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(17), 1030–1041.

Steensberg, A., Fischer, C. P., Keller, C., Møller, K., & Pedersen, B. K. (2003). IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 285(2), E433-E437.

Taherkhani, S., Suzuki, K., & Castell, L. (2020). A Short Overview of Changes in Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Response to Physical Activity and Antioxidant Supplementation. Antioxidants, 9(9), 886.

Thorpe, R. T., Atkinson, G., Drust, B., & Gregson, W. (2017). Monitoring fatigue status in elite team sport athletes: im-plications for practice. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(S2), S2-27.

Wang, P., Wu, P., Anthes, J. C., Siegel, M. I., Egan, R. W., & Billah, M. M. (1994). Interleukin-10 inhibits interleukin-8 production in human neutrophils. Blood, 83(9), 2678-2683.

Wang, P., Wu, P., Siegel, M. I., Egan, R. W., & Billah, M. M. (1994). IL-10 inhibits transcription of cytokine genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The Journal of Immunology, 153(2), 811-816.

West, S. W., Clubb, J., Torres-Ronda, L., Howells, D., Leng, E., Vescovi, J. D., Carmody, S., Posthumus, M., Dalen-Lorentsen, T., & Windt, J. (2021). More than a Metric: How Training Load is Used in Elite Sport for Athlete Manage-ment. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(4), 300–306.

Woods, A. L., Garvican-Lewis, L. A., Lundy, B., Rice, A. J., & Thompson, K. G. (2017). New approaches to determine fatigue in elite athletes during intensified training: Resting metabolic rate and pacing profile. PLoS One, 12(3), e0173807.

World Medical Association. (2013). World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical re-search involving human subjects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(20), 2191–2194.




Cómo citar

García Verazaluce, J. J., Guisado-Barrilao, R., Llera Figueroa, E., Hernández-Cruz, G., Rangel-Colmenero, B. R., Ocaña-Peinado, F. M., Hoyos-Flores, J. R., Jerez-Mayorga, D., & Guisado-Requena, I. M. (2023). Efecto del Phlebodium Decumanum sobre el daño muscular, inflamación y cortisol durante un mesociclo precompetitivo en Selección Nacional de Voleibol (Effect of Phlebodium Decumanum on muscle damage, inflammation and cortisol during a precompetitive mesocycle in a National Volleyball Team). Retos, 47, 878–886. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v47.93850



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a