Comportamiento del Profesor, Intensidad y Tiempo Efectivo de las Clases de Educación Física en una escuela pública: Un acercamiento a la realidad (Teacher’s Behavior, Intensity and Effective Time of Physical Education Classes in a Public School: An Appro

Cristian Retamal-Valderrama, Pedro Delgado Floody, Miguel Espinoza-Silva, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga

Resumen


Actualmente se recomienda que los estudiantes participen en Actividad Física Moderada a Vigorosa (AFMV) al menos el 50% del tiempo empleado en la clase de Educación Física (EF). Por tal motivo el objetivo fue identificar el nivel de Actividad Física (AF), comportamiento del Profesor y tiempo efectivo de las clases de EF, en una escuela pública de Chile. Durante dos meses, se observaron 14 clases de EF y a tres profesores (2 hombres y 1 mujer), los alumnos, presentaban edades entre 6 a 10 años. La observación se realizó considerando solo las clases que tuvieran una duración de 90 minutos y que fueran realizadas en un día sin climas extremos como lluvia, calor intenso o contaminación ambiental. Se evaluó 1) el porcentaje de tiempo de actividad física del estudiante 2) los contenidos de la clase 3) la participación del profesor. Mediante el sistema de observación del tiempo de instrucción de condición física. Como principales resultados encontramos que el tiempo dedicado a una AFMV fue de un 32% de la clase de EF. Además, el 68% fue destinado a la práctica libre y el 90.6% el profesor no promovió el esfuerzo. Como conclusión, los resultados de la investigación indican que la AFMV fue más baja que la recomendada y el mayor tiempo de la clase de EF no se promueve el esfuerzo dentro de los escolares. 

Abstract. It is recommended that students are engaged at least 50% of their Physical Education (PE) classes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thus, the objective was to identify the physical activity (PA) level, professor’s behavior and effective time of PE classes in a public school in Chile. Through two months, 14 PE classes and three teachers were observed. Observed students were between 6 and 10 years old. Only the classes that lasted 90 minutes and were not run in extreme conditions like rain, intense heat or environmental contamination were analyzed. We evaluated 1) student’s PA in percentage of time 2) class contents 3) teacher's participation. Everything was assessed through the system of observation of the time of instruction of the physical condition. The time dedicated to MVPA was 32% of the class. 68% was destined to the free practice. 90.6% the teacher did not promote the effort. The results indicate that the PA was significantly lower than the recommendation and in majority of time the PE teacher did not promote the students’ effort.


Palabras clave


actividad física, educación física, escolares, profesor, intensidad (physical activity, physical education, children, teacher, intensity)

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Bar-Or, O. (1987). A Commentary to Children and Fitness: A Public Health Perspective. Res Q Exerc Sport, 58(4), 304-307. doi: 10.1080/02701367.1987.10608104

Barajas Gutiérrez, M. A., Robledo Martín, E., Tomás García, N., Sanz Cuesta, T., García Martín, P., & Cerrada Somolinos, I. (1998). Quality of life in relation to health and obesity in a primary care center. Rev Esp Salud Publica, 72, 221-231.

Bevans, K. B., Fitzpatrick, L.-A., Sanchez, B. M., Riley, A. W., & Forrest, C. (2010). Physical Education Resources, Class Management, and Student Physical Activity Levels: A Structure-Process-Outcome Approach to Evaluating Physical Education Effectiveness. J Sch Health, 80(12), 573-580. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00544.x

Biddle, S. J. H., & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med, 45(11), 886-895. doi: 10.1136/2011/090185

Caballero, B., Clay, T., Davis, S. M., Ethelbah, B., Rock, B. H., Lohman, T., . . . Stevens, J. (2003). Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in American Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr, 78(5), 1030-1038.

Calle , E. E., Rodriguez , C., Walker-Thurmond , K., & Thun , M. J. (2003). Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults. N Engl J Med, 348(17), 1625-1638. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021423

Coe, D. P., Pivarnik, J., Womack, C., Reeves, M., & Malina, R. (2006). Effect of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(8), 1515-1519. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000227537.13175.1b

De Wit, L., Luppino, F., van Straten, A., Penninx, B., Zitman, F., & Cuijpers, P. (2010). Depression and obesity: A meta-analysis of community-based studies. Psychiatry Res, 178(2), 230-235. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.04.015

Dietz, W. H., & Hunter, A. S. (2009). Legal Preparedness for Obesity Prevention and Control: The Public Health Framework for Action. J Law Med Ethics, 37, 9-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-720X.2009.00386.x

Ebbeling, C. B., Pawlak, D. B., & Ludwig, D. S. (2002). Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. The Lancet, 360(9331), 473-482. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(02)09678-2

Goudas, M., Biddle, S., & Fox, K. (1994). Perceived locus of causality, goal orientations, and perceived competence in school physical education classes. Br J Educ Psychol, 64(3), 453-463. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1994.tb01116.x

Hall-Lopez, J. A., Ochoa-Martinez, P. Y., Burruel, R. Z., Ortiz, L. R. M., & Bunuel, P. S. L. (2017). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess and physical education among mexican elementary school students. Retos(31), 137-139.

Hernández-Álvarez, J. L., Del-Campo-Vecino, J., Martínez-de-Haro, V., & Moya-Morales., J. M. (2010). Perception of Exertion in Physical Education and its Relationship to Guidelines on Physical Activity. Rev.int.med.cienc.act.fís.deporte.

Hernández, J., & Velázquez, R. (2007 ). La Educación Física, los estilos de vida y los adolescentes: cómo son, cómo se ven, qué saben y qué opinan. Graó (Ed.)

HHS, D. o. H. a. H. S. (2010). Strategies to Improve the Quality of Physical Education. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity/pdf/quality_pe.pdf

Jennings-Aburto, N., Nava, F., Bonvecchio, A., Safdie, M., González-Casanova, I., Gust, T., & Rivera, J. (2009). Physical activity during the school day in public primary schools in Mexico City. Salud Publica Mex, 51, 141-147.

Kohl, H. W., 3rd, Craig, C. L., Lambert, E. V., Inoue, S., Alkandari, J. R., Leetongin, G., & Kahlmeier, S. (2012). The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The Lancet, 380(9838), 294-305. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60898-8

Lee, I. M., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61031-9

Levin, S., McKenzie, T. L., Hussey, J. R., Kelder, S. H., & Lytle, L. A. (2001). Variability of Physical Activity During Physical Education Lessons Across Elementary School Grades. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci, 5(4), 207-218. doi: 10.1207/s15327841mpee0504_02

Martínez Martínez, J., Contreras Jordán, O. R., Aznar Laín, S., & Lera Navarro, Á. (2012). Children’s physical activity levels measured by accelerometer: all day physical activity vs physical education classes. Rev Psicol Deporte, 21(1), 117-123.

McKenzie, T. (2015). System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences San Diego State University.

McKenzie, T., Feldman, H., Woods, S., Romero, K., Dahlstrom, V., Stone, E., . . . Harsha, D. (1995). Children's activity levels and lesson context during third-grade physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport. doi: 10.1080 / 02701367.1995.10608832

McKenzie, T. L., & Mars, H. v. d. (2015). Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation. Res Q Exerc Sport, 86(1), 13-29. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2015.991264

Mo-suwan, L., Pongprapai, S., Junjana, C., & Puetpaiboon, A. (1998). Effects of a controlled trial of a school-based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr, 68(5), 1006-1011.

Moreno-Murcia, J. A., Huéscar, E., Peco, N., Alarcón, E., & Cervelló, E. (2013). Relations of feed-back and teacher communication barriers with intrinsic motivation among adolescent students in physical education. Anal. Psicol., 29, 257-263.

Moreno, L. A., Pigeot, I., & Ahrens, W. (Eds.). (2011). Epidemiology of Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Springer New York.

Navas Martínez, L., & Soriano Llorca, J. A. (2016). Analysis of the reasons to practice or not extracurriculum physical activities and its relationship with physical self-concept in Chilean students. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte.

Nguyen, N. T., Nguyen, X.-M. T., Lane, J., & Wang, P. (2011). Relationship Between Obesity and Diabetes in a US Adult Population: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2006. Obes Surg, 21(3), 351-355. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-0335-4

Pérez Bonilla, A. M. (2016). Impacto de la clase de educación física sobre la actividad moderada y vigorosa en niños de primaria. Revista Mexicana de Investigación en Cultura Física y Deporte, 1(1), 24.

Raitakari, O. T., Juonala, M., & Viikari, J. S. A. (2005). Obesity in childhood and vascular changes in adulthood: insights into the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Int J Obes, 29, S101-S104. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803085

Reilly, J. J., & Kelly, J. (2010). Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. Int J Obes, 35(7), 891-898. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.222

Ruiz, J. R., España Romero, V., Castro Piñero, J., Artero, E. G., Ortega, F. B., Cuenca García, M., . . . Castillo, M. J. (2011). ALPHA-fitness test battery: health-related field-based fitness tests assessment in children and adolescents. Nutr. Hosp., 26, 1210-1214.

Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Alcaraz, J. E., Kolody, B., Faucette, N., & Hovell, M. F. (1997). The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. Am J Public Health, 87(8), 1328-1334.

Scruggs, P. (2007). Quantifying activity time via pedometry in fifth- and sixth-grade physical education. J Phys Act Health.

Scruggs, P. w., Beverdge, S. K., A.Elsenman, P., Watson, D. L., Barry BSHULTZ, & Lynda B. Rransdell. (2003). Quantifying Physical Activity via Pedometry in Elementary Physical Education. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35(6), 1065-1071.

Skala, K. A., Springer, A. E., Sharma, S. V., Hoelscher, D. M., & Kelder, S. H. (2012). Environmental Characteristics and Student Physical Activity in PE Class: Findings From Two Large Urban Areas of Texas. J Phys Act Health, 9(4), 481-491.

Stewart, J. A., Dennison, D. A., Kohl, H. W., & Doyle, J. A. (2004). Exercise Level and Energy Expenditure in the TAKE 10!® In-Class Physical Activity Program. J Sch Health, 74(10), 397-400. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb06605.x

The National Institute of Child, H. H. D. S. o. E. C., Care Youth Development, Network (2003). Frequency and intensity of activity of third-grade children in physical education. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157(2), 185-190. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.157.2.185

Vale, S., Santos, R., Silva, P., Soares-Miranda, L., & Mota, J. (2011). Relationship of objective measurement of physical activity during school hours and BMI in preschool children. Int J Pediatr Obes, 2, 37-38.

Vucenik, I., & Stains, J. P. (2012). Obesity and cancer risk: evidence, mechanisms, and recommendations. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1271(1), 37-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06750.x

WHO. (2009). Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. 2009.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.