Estrategias de calentamiento y rendimiento contrarreloj en nadadores. Revisión rápida de la literatura (Warm-up strategies and time trial performance in swimmers. Rapid review of the literature)

Autores/as

  • Diego Enríquez-Enríquez Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello. Santiago, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8921-6104
  • Carlos Mecina-Zapata Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello. Santiago, Chile.
  • Hernán Riveros-Cárcamo Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello. Santiago, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2429-4181
  • Daniel Jerez-Mayorga Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello. Santiago, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6878-8004
  • Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello. Santiago, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2035-3279
  • Luis Javier Chirosa-Ríos Department Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18011. Granada, Spain. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1008-176X
  • Francisco Guede-Rojas Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello. Santiago, Chile. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1870-1396

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v47.92860

Palabras clave:

Natación (Swimming), Ejercicio de calentamiento (Warm-up exercise), Rendimiento deportivo (Athletic Performance), Fenómenos fisiológicos musculoesqueléticos y neuronales (Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena), Fuerza muscular (Muscle strength), Ejercicio pliométrico (Plyometric Exercise), Temperatura corporal (Body Temperature).

Resumen

El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la efectividad de diversas estrategias de calentamiento sobre el rendimiento en pruebas contrarreloj hasta 200-m, mediante una revisión rápida de la literatura. Utilizando directrices PRISMA, se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos MEDLINE/Pubmed considerando estudios experimentales desde el año 2013. La calidad metodológica se evaluó mediante la escala PEDro. De 181 registros iniciales se incluyeron finalmente 16 estudios. Todos presentaron un diseño metodológico cruzado con calidad baja (tres estudios), regular (12 estudios) y buena (un estudio). Participó un total de 161 hombres y 75 mujeres con edad media de 17.96 años, compitiendo a nivel universitario, nacional o internacional. Estrategias de calentamiento activo en el agua mejoraron el tiempo de la prueba hasta en un 1.48%. La reducción de la fase de transición posterior a la realización de calentamiento activo en el agua mejoró el tiempo hasta en un 1.50%. Estrategias adicionales al calentamiento activo en el agua, mejoraron el tiempo hasta en un 2.04%. A partir de esta revisión, se concluye que no existe suficiente evidencia que sustente el uso de las diversas estrategias de calentamiento sobre el rendimiento en pruebas contrarreloj; no obstante, sus porcentajes de reducción del tiempo representan una opción interesante para nadadores y entrenadores en entornos competitivos.

Palabras claves: Natación; Ejercicio de calentamiento; Rendimiento deportivo; Fenómenos fisiológicos musculoesqueléticos y neuronales; Fuerza muscular; Ejercicio pliométrico; Temperatura corporal.

Abstract. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of various warm-up strategies on time trial performance up to 200-m through a rapid literature review. Using PRISMA guidelines, a search was performed in the MEDLINE/Pubmed database considering experimental studies since 2013. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. From 181 initial records, 16 studies were finally included. All presented a crossover methodological design with low (three studies), fair (12 studies), and good (one study) quality. A total of 161 men and 75 women participated, with a mean age of 17.96 years, competing at university, national, or international levels. In-water active warm-up strategies improved time trial performance by up to 1.48%. Reducing the transition phase after in-water active warm-up improved time by up to 1.50%. Strategies added to in-water active warm-up improved time by up to 2.04%. From this review, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support using different warm-up strategies on time trial performance; however, their time reduction percentages represent an interesting option for swimmers and coaches in competitive environments.

Keywords: Swimming; Warm-up exercise; Athletic Performance; Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena; Muscle strength; Plyometric Exercise; Body Temperature.

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2023-01-02

Cómo citar

Enríquez-Enríquez, D., Mecina-Zapata, C., Riveros-Cárcamo, H., Jerez-Mayorga, D., Ramírez-Campillo, R., Chirosa-Ríos, L. J., & Guede-Rojas, F. (2023). Estrategias de calentamiento y rendimiento contrarreloj en nadadores. Revisión rápida de la literatura (Warm-up strategies and time trial performance in swimmers. Rapid review of the literature). Retos, 47, 238–248. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v47.92860

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