Efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre la condición física en niños y niñas con sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión sistemática (Effects of strength training on the fitness in boys and girls with overweight and obesity: a systematic review)

Autores/as

  • Luis Le-Cerf Paredes Programa de Magíster en ciencias de la actividad física y del deporte aplicadas al entrenamiento, rehabilitación y reintegro deportivo, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile
  • Pablo Valdés-Badilla Departamento de Ciencias de la Actividad Física. Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. Universidad Católica del Maule. Talca, Chile.
  • Eduardo Guzman Muñoz Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Chile

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.87756

Palabras clave:

obesidad infantil, condición física, entrenamiento de fuerza, entrenamiento de resistencia, (childhood obesity, physical fitness, strength training, resistance training)

Resumen

Introducción: Debido a las preocupantes cifras de obesidad infantil y los riesgos para la salud que significa tener este estado nutricional no saludable, nuestro objetivo fue realizar una revisión sistemática para determinar los efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza muscular sobre la condición física general de niños y niñas con sobreopeso y obesidad. Métodos: Se utilizaron las bases de datos PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, SciELO y Google Scholar. Los estudios que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión fueron valorados en cuanto a su calidad metodológica a través de la escala PEDro. Resultados: Los estudios señalan que el entrenamiento de fuerza cuando es aplicado de manera aislada aumenta la fuerza muscular, flexibilidad, potencia muscular, agilidad y capacidad cardiorrespiratoria en niños y niñas con sobrepeso y obesidad. Cuando el entrenamiento de fuerza se combinó con actividades aeróbicas se observaron aumentos significativos de la fuerza muscular, capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y flexibilidad Conclusiones: A pesar de la diversidad de los estudios, el entrenamiento de fuerza muscular parece tener un efecto positivo en la condición física general de los niños y niñas con sobrepeso y obesidad.

Abstract. Introduction: Due to the worrying figures for childhood obesity and the health risks of having this unhealthy nutritional state, our objective was to carry out a systematic review to determine the effects of muscle strength training on the general physical condition of boys and girls overweight and obese. Methods: PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, SciELO and Google Scholar databases were used. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for their methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Results: Studies indicate that strength training when applied in isolation increases muscle strength, flexibility, muscle power, agility, and cardiorespiratory capacity in overweight and obese boys and girls. When strength training was combined with aerobic activities, significant increases in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory capacity and flexibility were observed. Conclusions: Despite the diversity of studies, muscle strength training seems to have a positive effect on the general physical condition of overweight and obese boys and girls.

Citas

Alberga, A. S., Farnesi, B. C., Lafleche, A., Legault, L., & Komorowski, J. (2013). The Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Body Composition and Strength in Obese Prepubertal Children. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 41(3), 103-109. doi: https://doi.org/10.3810/psm.2013.09.2028

Alberga, A. S., Prud’homme, D., Sigal, R. J., Goldfield, G. S., Hadjiyannakis, S., Phillips, P., . . . Gougeon, R. (2016). Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(3), 255-265. doi: https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2015-0413

Bastien, M., Poirier, P., Lemieux, I., & Despres, J. P. (2014). Overview of Epidemiology and Contribution of Obesity to Cardiovascular Disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 56(4), 369-381. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.10.016

Borde, R., Hortobagyi, T., & Granacher, U. (2015). Dose-Response Relationships of Resistance Training in Healthy Old Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 45(12), 1693-1720. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0385-9

Bouchard, D. R., Soucy, L., Senechal, M., Dionne, I. J., & Brochu, M. (2009). Impact of resistance training with or without caloric restriction on physical capacity in obese older women. Menopause-the Journal of the North American Menopause Society, 16(1), 66-72. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e31817dacf7

Bruno, A., Escobar, P., Cebolla, A., Alvarez-Pitti, J., Guixeres, J., Lurbe, E., . . . Lison, J. F. (2018). Home-exercise Childhood Obesity Intervention: A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Print Versus Web-based (Move It) Platforms. Journal of Pediatric Nursing-Nursing Care of Children & Families, 42, E79-E84. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2018.04.008

Calcaterra, V., Larizza, D., Codrons, E., De Silvestri, A., Brambilla, P., Abela, S., . . . Vandoni, M. (2013). Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 26(3-4), 271-276. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2012-0157

Chen, C. K., Ismail, N. S., & Al-Safi, A. A. (2016). Effects of brisk walking and resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and lipid profiles among overweight and obese individuals. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16(3), 957-963.

Clark, J., & Goon, D. (2015). The role of resistance training for treatment of obesity related health issues and for changing health status of the individual who is overfat or obese: a review. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 55(3), 205-222.

Crouter, S. E., Salas, C., & Wiecha, J. (2017). Effects of an afterschool community center physical activity program on fitness and body composition in obese youth. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(11), doi: https://doi.org/1034-1040. doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1209305

de Onis, M., Blossner, M., & Borghi, E. (2010). Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92(5), 1257-1264. doi: doi: https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29786

Dias, I., Farinatti, P., Gracas Coelho De Souza, M. D., Manhanini, D. P., Balthazar, E., Simplicio Dantas, D. L., . . . Kraemer-Aguiar, L. G. (2015). Effects of Resistance Training on Obese Adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(12), 2636-2644. doi: https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000000705

Faigenbaum, A., Perez, T., & Naclerio, F. (2011). Resistance training for overweight youth. Revista Kronos, 10(1),5-14.

Farris, J. W., Taylor, L., Williamson, M., & Robinson, C. (2011). A 12-week interdisciplinary intervention program for children who are obese. Cardiopulmonary physical therapy journal, 22(4), 12-20.

Fischetti, F., Cataldi, S., & Greco, G. (2019). A combined plyometric and resistance training program improves fitness performance in 12 to 14-years-old boys. Sport Sciences for Health, 15(3), 615-621. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-019-00560-2

Fraser, B. J., Schmidt, M. D., Huynh, Q. L., Dwyer, T., Venn, A. J., & Magnussen, C. G. (2017). Tracking of muscular strength and power from youth to young adulthood: Longitudinal findings from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(10), 927-931. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.03.021

Grontved, A., Ried-Larsen, M., Moller, N. C., Kristensen, P. L., Froberg, K., Brage, S., & Andersen, L. B. (2015). Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(2), 90-U38. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-091907

Guzmán-Muñoz, E., & Castillo-Retamal, M. (2020a). Control postural en niños con sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión de la literatura. Revista Científica Salud Uninorte, 36(2),471-488. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14482/sun.36.2.616.398

Guzmán-Muñoz, E., Sazo-Rodriguez, S., Concha-Cisternas, Y., Valdes-Badilla, P., Lira-Cea, C., Silva-Moya, G., . . . Mendez-Rebolledo, G. (2020b). Four Weeks of Neuromuscular Training Improve Static and Dynamic Postural Control in Overweight and Obese Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Motor Behavior,52(6),761-769. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2019.1694486

Guzmán-Muñoz, E., Valdés-Badilla, P., Concha-Cisternas, Y., Méndez-Rebolledo, G., & Castillo Retamal, M. (2020c). Methods for measuring physical activity in children and their relationship with nutritional status: a narrative review. Archivos de medicina del deporte,37(3),197-203.

Guzmán-Muñoz, E., Valdes-Badilla, P., Mendez-Rebolledo, G., Concha-Cisternas, Y., & Castillo-Retamal, M. (2019). Relationship between anthropometry and balance of postural control in children 6-9 years old. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 36(1), 32-38. doi: https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.02072

He, H., Pan, L., Dui, J., Liu, F., Jin, Y., Ma, J., . . . Shan, G. (2019). Muscle fitness and its association with body mass index in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China: a cross-sectional study. Bmc Pediatrics, 19, 101 (2019). doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1477-8

Helms, E. R., Cronin, J., Storey, A., & Zourdos, M. C. (2016). Application of the Repetitions in Reserve-Based Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Training. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 38(4), 42-49. doi: https://doi.org/10.1519/ssc.0000000000000218

Horsak, B., Schwab, C., Baca, A., Greber-Platzer, S., Kreissl, A., Nehrer, S., . . . Wondrasch, B. (2019). Effects of a lower extremity exercise program on gait biomechanics and clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with obesity: A randomized controlled trial. Gait & posture, 70, 122-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.02.032

Jin, C.-H., Rhyu, H.-S., & Kim, J. Y. (2018). The effects of combined aerobic and resistance training on inflammatory markers in obese men. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 14(4), 660-665. doi: https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1836294.147

Kakebeeke, T. H., Lanzi, S., Zysset, A. E., Arhab, A., Messerli-Bürgy, N., Stuelb, K., . . . Puder, J. J. (2017). Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children. Obesity Facts, 10(5), 420-431. doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000477406

Kim, H.-J., Lee, H.-J., So, B., Son, J. S., Yoon, D., & Song, W. (2016). Effect of Aerobic Training and Resistance Training on Circulating Irisin Level and Their Association With Change of Body Composition in Overweight/Obese Adults: a Pilot Study. Physiological Research, 65(2), 271-279. doi: https://doi.org/10.33549/physiolres.932997

Kim, S.-Y. (2009). Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Obese Middle-aged Adults. Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, 37(2), 1069-1080.

Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Clark, K. L., Gordon, S. E., Puhl, S. M., Koziris, L. P., . . . Sebastianelli, W. J. (1999). Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes with weight loss in men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(9), 1320-1329. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199909000-00014

Martins, J., Cardoso, J., Honório, S., & Silva, A. (2019). The Effect of a Strength Training Programme in Adolescents in Physical Education Classes (El efecto de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza en adolescentes en clases de educación física). Retos, 38, 71-76. doi: https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v38i38.72221

Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., . . . Grp, P. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews, 4(1),1-9. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-4-1

Moseley, A. M., Herbert, R. D., Sherrington, C., & Maher, C. G. (2002). Evidence for physiotherapy practice: A survey of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 48(1), 43-49. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0004-9514(14)60281-6

Ng, M., Fleming, T., Robinson, M., Thomson, B., Graetz, N., Margono, C., . . . Gakidou, E. (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet, 384(9945), 766-781. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(14)60460-8

Nobre, G. G., de Almeida, M. B., Nobre, I. G., dos Santos, F. K., Brinco, R. A., Arruda-Lima, T. R., . . . Moura-dos-Santos, M. A. (2017). Twelve weeks of plyometric training improves motor performance of 7-to 9-year-old boys who were overweight/obese: a randomized controlled intervention. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(8), 2091-2099. doi: https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001684

Prieto González, P., Sagat, P., Ben Brahim, M., & Sedlacek, J. (2019). Análisis de la veracidad de determinadas creencias asociadas habitualmente al entrenamiento de fuerza. Una revisión narrativa (Analysis of the veracity of certain beliefs frequently associated to resistance training. A narrative review). Retos, 38, 773-781. doi: https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v38i38.69739

Rajmil, L., Bel, J., Clofent, R., Cabezas, C., Castell, C., & Espallargues, M. (2016). [Clinical interventions in overweight and obesity: a systematic literature review 2009-2014]. Anales de pediatría. 86(4),197-212. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2016.03.012

Ramirez-Izcoa, A., Enrique Sanchez-Sierra, L., Mejia-Irias, C., Izaguirre Gonzalez, A. I., Alvarado-Avilez, C., Flores-Moreno, R., . . . Rivera, E. E. (2017). Prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity and associated factors in public and private schools in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Revista Chilena De Nutrición, 44(2), 161-169. doi: https://doi.org/10.4067/s0717-75182017000200007

Ribeiro, C. C., Gómez-Conesa, A., & Montesinos, M. H. (2010). Metodología para la adaptación de instrumentos de evaluación. Fisioterapia, 32(6), 264-270. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ft.2010.05.001

Said, M. A., Abdelmoneem, M., Almaqhawi, A., Kotob, A. A. H., Alibrahim, M. C., & Bougmiza, I. (2018). Multidisciplinary approach to obesity: Aerobic or resistance physical exercise?. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 16(3), 118-123. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2018.11.001

Sanchez-Cruz, J. J., Jimenez-Moleon, J. J., Fernandez-Quesada, F., & Sanchez, M. J. (2013). Prevalence of Child and Youth Obesity in Spain in 2012. Revista Española De Cardiologia, 66(5), 371-376. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2012.10.012

Shaibi, G. Q., Cruz, M. L., Ball, G. D. C., Weigensberg, M. J., Salem, G. J., Crespo, N. C., & Goran, M. I. (2006). Effects of resistance training on insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino adolescent males. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(7), 1208-1215. doi: https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000227304.88406.0f

Sun, F., Wang, L.-J., & Wang, L. (2015). Effects of weight management program on postural stability and neuromuscular function among obese children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16,143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-015-0673-6

Takken, T., Elst, E., Spermon, N., Helders, P. J. M., Prakken, A. B. J., & van der Net, J. (2003). The physiological and physical determinants of functional ability measures in children with juvenile dermatomyositis. Rheumatology, 42(4), 591-595. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keg210

Timpka, S., Petersson, I. F., Zhou, C., & Englund, M. (2014). Muscle strength in adolescent men and risk of cardiovascular disease events and mortality in middle age: a prospective cohort study. Bmc Medicine, 12,62. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-12-62

Tobarra, S. E., Castro, O. Ó., & Badilla, C. R. (2015). Estado nutricional y características socioepidemiológicas de escolares chilenos, OMS 2007. Revista chilena de pediatría, 86(1), 12-17. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rchipe.2015.04.003

Vasquez, F., Diaz, E., Lera, L., Meza, J., Salas, I., Rojas, P., . . . Burrows, R. (2013). Residual effect of muscle strength exercise in secondary prevention of childhood obesity. Nutrición Hospitalaria, 28(2), 333-339. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2013.28.2.6159

Wind, A. E., Takken, T., Helders, P. J. M., & Engelbert, R. H. H. (2010). Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?. European Journal of Pediatrics, 169(3), 281-287. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-009-1010-4

Zourdos, M. C., Klemp, A., Dolan, C., Quiles, J. M., Schau, K. A., Jo, E., . . . Blanco, R. (2016). novel resistance training-specific rating of perceived exertion scale measuring repetitions in reserve. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(1), 267-275. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000001049

Descargas

Publicado

2022-01-06

Cómo citar

Le-Cerf Paredes, L., Valdés-Badilla, P., & Guzman Muñoz, E. (2022). Efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre la condición física en niños y niñas con sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión sistemática (Effects of strength training on the fitness in boys and girls with overweight and obesity: a systematic review). Retos, 43, 233–242. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.87756

Número

Sección

Revisiones teóricas

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a