Efectos de un entrenamiento neuromuscular sobre el equilibrio postural dinámico y propiocepción en basquetbolistas juveniles con inestabilidad funcional de tobillo (Effects of neuromuscular training on dynamic postural balance and proprioception in youth

Autores/as

  • Karina Vásquez-Orellana
  • Matías López-Vásquez
  • Guillermo Méndez-Rebolledo
  • Eduardo Guzman Muñoz

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.91257

Palabras clave:

balance postural, propiocepción, entrenamiento neuromuscular, inestabilidad funcional de tobillo, control postural, (postural balance; proprioception; neuromuscular training, functional ankle instability; Postural control)

Resumen

 

Introducción: La prevención de lesiones depende de varios factores en el deportista, en donde un buen equilibrio postural y propiocepción son claves para lograrlo. Se plantea que el entrenamiento neuromuscular podría mejorar el equilibrio postural dinámico y propiocepción en basquetbolistas con inestabilidad funcional de tobillo (IFT). Método: Ensayo clínico controlado y aleatorizado. La muestra fue compuesta por 27 jugadoras de basquetbol entre 15 a 17 años, pertenecientes a un Club Deportivo de la comuna de Maipú (Santiago de Chile). 13 de ellas asignadas al grupo control y 14 a un grupo experimental. Este ultimo grupo recibió una intervención neuromuscular de 6 semanas, de 2 días no consecutivos. Se trabajaron ambas extremidades en superficies estables, inestables, con y sin inhibición visual. Se midió el equilibrio postural con la prueba SEBTm y la propiocepción a través de una prueba de reposicionamiento articular activo. Resultados: tanto el grupo control como experimental mejoraron significativamente el equilibrio postural, no obstante, el grupo experimental evidenció mayores cambios porcentuales y tamaños del efecto (TE) más grandes. El mayor cambio en el grupo control fue de 7,8% en la dirección posterolateral del SEBTm (p=0,046; TE=0,74). En el grupo experimental el mayor cambio fue de 21% en la dirección anterior del SEBTm (p=0,001; TE=2,2). En la prueba de reposicionamiento activo no se observaron cambios significativos en el grupo control, mientras que el grupo experimental mejoró hasta un 82,8% en la articulación de cadera (p=0,001; TE=2,72). Conclusión: Un entrenaiento neuromuscular de seis semanas mejoró el equilibrio postural dinámico y la propiocepción en basquetbolistas mujeres con IFT.

Abstract. Introduction: Injury prevention depends on several factors in the athlete, where an optimal postural balance and proprioception are key to achieving it. It is suggested that neuromuscular training could improve dynamic postural balance and proprioception in basketball players with functional ankle instability (FAI). Method: Randomized controlled clinical trial. The sample consisted of 27 female basketball players between the ages of 15 and 17, belonging to a Sports Club in the Maipú city (Santiago, Chile). 13 of them assigned to the control group and 14 to an experimental group. This last group received a neuromuscular intervention of 6 weeks, of 2 non-consecutive days. Both extremities were worked on stable, unstable surfaces, with and without visual inhibition. Postural balance was measured with the SEBTm test and proprioception through an active joint repositioning test. Results: both the control and experimental groups significantly improved postural balance, however, the experimental group showed greater percentage changes and larger effect sizes (ES). The greatest change in the control group was 7.8% in the posterolateral direction of the SEBTm (p=0.046; ES=0.74). In the experimental group, the greatest change was 21% in the anterior direction of the SEBTm (p=0.001; ES=2.2). In the active repositioning test, no significant changes were observed in the control group, while the experimental group improved up to 82.8% in the hip joint (p=0.001; ES=2.72). Conclusion: A six-week neuromuscular training improved dynamic postural balance and proprioception in female basketball players with IFT.

Citas

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Publicado

2022-02-23

Cómo citar

Vásquez-Orellana, K., López-Vásquez, M., Méndez-Rebolledo, G., & Guzman Muñoz, E. (2022). Efectos de un entrenamiento neuromuscular sobre el equilibrio postural dinámico y propiocepción en basquetbolistas juveniles con inestabilidad funcional de tobillo (Effects of neuromuscular training on dynamic postural balance and proprioception in youth. Retos, 44, 1104–1112. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.91257

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Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas