¿Pueden los videojuegos mejorar el equilibrio en mujeres mayores de 60 años? (Can videogames improve balance in women over 60 years?)


  • Juan Antonio Párraga Montilla Profesor titular
  • Pedro Ángel Latorre Román Profesor titular
  • Jose Carlos Cabrera Linares Mres
  • Carlos Salazar Martínez Profesor titular
  • Manuel Villar Ortega Profesor titular
  • Rafael Moreno Del Castillo Profesor titular
  • Victor Serrano Huete Profesor titular
  • Emilio Lozano Aguilera Profesor titular



Palabras clave:

Mujeres, Calidad de vida, programa de entrenamiento, Equilibrio, Videojuegos, (Women, Quality of living, Training program, Balance, Videogames)


Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad de incorporar videojuegos en un programa de actividad física en mujeres mayores de 60 años. Método: Se diseñó un estudio intergrupal, intragrupo y multigrupo, así como una metodología experimental. Se implementó un entrenamiento de resistencia y propiocepción en mujeres mayores de 60 años (N=43, Edad=67.74 ± 5.03 años, durante tres meses y tres sesiones semanales. Se dividió en un grupo control (GC) (n=11; Edad=67.09 ± 6.25 años), no realizó entrenamiento. Grupo experimental 1 (GE1) (EG1: N= 16; edad= 66.94 ± 4.14 años), realizó un entrenamiento de resistencia y propiocepción y se añadió el uso de videojuegos durante 20 minutos. Grupo Experimental 2 (GE2) (N=16; edad=69.00 ± 4.99 años), que realizó el mismo entrenamiento sin el uso de videojuegos. Resultados: Encontramos una mejora en el GE1 en grasa corporal, equilibrio con y sin visión, fuerza isométrica en la mano dominante y VO2max. El GE2 mejoró en el índice de masa corporal (IMC), grasa corporal, fuerza isométrica en la mano no dominante y VO2max. No se encontraron cambios en el GC. Conclusión: La inclusión en un programa físico de entrenamiento que incluye propiocepción y ejercicios aeróbicos de resistencia reduce el peso, el IMC y el VO2max en ambos grupos (GE1, GE2). Además, si el programa de entrenamiento es completado con el uso de videojuegos (GE1), se mejora el equilibrio estático monopodal, con y sin visión, lo cual es considerado beneficioso para prevenir caídas en mujeres mayores de 60 años.

Abstract. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the usefulness of incorporating videogames as a physical activity training program for women above 60 years old. Methods: An intergroup, intragroup and multigroup design on three groups were used as well as experimental methodology. Women above 60 years old (N=43, age=67.74 ± 5.03 years), completed a proprioceptive and resistance training during three months and three sessions a week. Participants were divided into: control group (CG) (n=11; age=67.09 ± 6.25 years), does not do the experimental training. Experimental group 1 (EG1: N= 16; age= 66.94 ± 4.14 years) performed a proprioceptive and resistance training program of 40 minutes, adding the use of a videogame during 20 minutes. Experimental group 2 (EG2) (N=16; age=69.00 ± 4.99 years), performed the same training without the videogame training. Results: We found an improvement in EG1 in body fat, balance with and without vision, dominant hand isometric force and VO2max. The EG2 group improves in body mass index (BMI), body fat, non-dominant hand isometric force and VO2max. CG does not change. Conclusion: Joining a physical training program, including proprioceptive and aerobic resistance exercises result in a weight and BMI drop, and a VO2max improvement in both groups (EG1 and EG2). Additionally, if the training program is completed with the use of videogames (EG1), monopodal static balance improve more than EG1 and EG2, with and without vision, which is considered beneficial to prevent falls in women over 60 years.


Agmon, M., Perry, C. K., Phelan, E., Demiris, G., & Nguyen, H. Q. (2011). A pilot study of Wii Fit exergames to improve balance in older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 34(4), 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1519/JPT.0b013e3182191d98

Anguera, J. A., Gazzaley, A., Sahakian, B. J., & Kramer, A. F. (2015). Video games, cognitive exercises, and the enhancement of cognitive abilities This review comes from a themed issue on Cognitive enhancement. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 160–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.06.002

Ballesteros, S., Prieto, A., Mayas, J., Toril, P., Pita, C., Ponce de León, L., Reales, J. M., & Waterworth, J. (2014). Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 277. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00277

Blank, W. A., Freiberger, E., Siegrist, M., Landendoerfer, P., Linde, K., Schuster, T.,…,& Halle, M. (2011). An interdisciplinary intervention to prevent falls in community-dwelling elderly persons: Protocol of a cluster-randomized trial [PreFalls]. BMC Geriatrics, 11(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-11-7

Caicedo, P. E., Rengifo, C. F., & Rodríguez, L. E. (2016). Contribuciones de las ciencias electrónicas al problema de las caídas en población adulta mayor. Revista Mexicana de Ingenieria Biomedica, 37(3), 251–269. https://doi.org/10.17488/RMIB.37.3.6

Cameirão, M. S., Badia, S. B. I., Oller, E. D., & Verschure, P. F. (2010). Neurorehabilitation using the virtual reality based Rehabilitation Gaming System: methodology, design, psychometrics, usability and validation. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 7 (1), 48.


Camiña, F., Cancela, J. M., & Romo, V. (2001). The prescription of the physical exercise for elders. Normative values of the fitness. 1, 136–154.

Chakravarty, E. F., Hubert, H. B., Lingala, V. B., & Fries, J. F. (2008). Reduced disability and mortality among aging runners: a 21-year longitudinal study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(15), 1638–1646. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.168.15.1638

Chao, Y.-Y., Scherer, Y. K., Montgomery, C. A., Wu, Y.-W., & Lucke, K. T. (2014). Physical and Psychosocial Effects of Wii Fit Exergames Use in Assisted Living Residents: A Pilot Study. Clinical Nursing Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1054773814562880

Chao, Y., Scherer, Y. K., Wu, Y., Lucke, K. T., & Montgomery, C. A. (2013). The feasibility of an intervention combining self-efficacy theory and Wii Fit exergames in assisted living residents : A pilot study. JUNE. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2013.05.006

Dionyssiotis, Y., Galanos, A., Michas, G., & Lyritis, G. P. (2009). Assessment of musculoskeletal system in women with jumping mechanography. 113–118.

Epstein, L. H., Beecher, M. D., Graf, J. L., & Roemmich, J. N. (2007). Choice of interactive dance and bicycle games in overweight and nonoverweight youth. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(2), 124–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02879893

Ferraz, D. D., Trippo, K., Dominguez, A., Santos, A., & Oliveira Filho, J. (2017). Nintendo Wii training on postural balance and mobility rehabilitation of adults with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review. Fisioterapia Em Movimento, 30(suppl 1), 383–393. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-5918.030.s01.ar07

Kyle D. Flack, Kevin P. Davy, Matthew W. Hulver, Richard A. Winett, Madlyn I. Frisard, Brenda M. Davy. “Aging, Resistance Training, and Diabetes Prevention”, Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2011, ArticleID 127315, 12 pages, 2011. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/127315

Fleg, J. L., Morrell, C. H., Bos, A. G., Brant, L. J., Talbot, L. A., Wright, J. G., & Lakatta, E. G. (2005). Accelerated longitudinal decline of aerobic capacity in healthy older adults. Circulation, 112(5), 674–682. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.545459

Ganz, D. A., Bao, Y., Shekelle, P. G., & Rubenstein, L. Z. (2007). Will my patient fall? JAMA, 297(1), 77–86. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.297.1.77

González, G., Marín, P. P., & Pereira, G. (2001). [Characteristics of falls among free living elders]. Revista Médica de Chile, 129(9), 1021–1030.

Guzmán, K. S., Fonseca, A. S., Jiménez, J. M., & Mora, L. C. S. (2018). Mejora del equilibrio, atención y concentración después de un programa de entrenamiento exergame en la persona adulta mayor. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, (33), 102-105.

Heredia, N. M., Rodríguez, E. S., & García, A. M. R. (2021). Beneficios de la actividad física para la promoción de un envejecimiento activo en personas mayores: revisión bibliográfica. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, (39), 12.

Hernandez, M. E., Goldberg, A., & Alexander, N. B. (2010). Decreased muscle strength relates to self-reported stooping, crouching, or kneeling difficulty in older adults. Physical Therapy, 90(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20090035

Hill, E. E., Nguyen, T. H., Shaha, M., Wenzel, J. A., DeForge, B. R., & Spellbring, A. M. (2009). Person-environment interactions contributing to nursing home resident falls. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 2(4), 287–296. https://doi.org/10.3928/19404921-20090527-02

Horne, M., Skelton, D. A., Speed, S., & Todd, C. (2014). Falls Prevention and the Value of Exercise: Salient Beliefs Among South Asian and White British Older Adults. Clinical Nursing Research, 23(1), 94–110. https://doi.org/10.1177/1054773813488938

IJsselsteijn, W., Nap, H. H., De Kort, Y., & Poels, K. (2007). Digital game design for elderly users. Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Future Play, Future Play ’07, 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1145/1328202.1328206

Janssen, I. (2010). Evolution of sarcopenia research. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme, 35(5), 707–712. https://doi.org/10.1139/H10-067

Jin, K., Simpkins, J. W., Ji, X., Leis, M., & Stambler, I. (2015). The critical need to promote research of aging and aging-related diseases to improve health and longevity of the elderly population. Aging and Disease, 6(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.14336/AD.2014.1210

Kosse, N., & Maartenskliniek, S. (2011). Exergaming : Interactive balance training in healthy community-dwelling older adults ExErgamIng : IntEractIvE BalancE traInIng In hEalthy communIty-. October 2015.

Kyle, U. G., Bosaeus, I., Lorenzo, A. D. De, Manuel, G., Lilienthal, B., Kent-smith, L., Melchior, J., Pichard, C., & Group, W. (2004). Bioelectrical impedance analysis F part I : review of principles and methods. 1226–1243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2004.06.004

Lang, T., Streeper, T., Cawthon, P., Baldwin, K., Taaffe, D. R., & Harris, T. B. (2010). Sarcopenia: Etiology, clinical consequences, intervention, and assessment. Osteoporosis International, 21(4), 543–559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-009-1059-y

Li, J., Theng, Y. L., Foo, S., & Xu, X. (2018). Exergames vs. traditional exercise: investigating the influencing mechanism of platform effect on subthreshold depression among older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 22(12), 1634–1641. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2017.1385722

Martínez, C. S., Ortega, M. V., Montilla, J. A. P., & Moreno, R. (2010). Efectos de la utilización de los videojuegos en un programa de mejora del equilibrio en mujeres de 60 años o más. Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, (17), 93-95.

McNaull, B. B. A., Todd, S., McGuinness, B., & Passmore, A. P. (2010). Inflammation and anti-inflammatory strategies for Alzheimer’s disease--a mini-review. Gerontology, 56(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1159/000237873

Meisler, R., Thomsen, A. B., Theilade, P., Abildstrøm, H., Borge, P., Treschow, M.,…,& Rasmussen, L. S. (2011). Age-related differences in mechanism, cause, and location of trauma deaths. Minerva Anestesiologica, 77(6), 592–597.

Mirelman, A., Maidan, I., Herman, T., Deutsch, J. E., Giladi, N., & Hausdorff, J. M. (2011). Virtual reality for gait training: can it induce motor learning to enhance complex walking and reduce fall risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease? The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 66(2), 234–240. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glq201

Misic, M. M., Valentine, R. J., Rosengren, K. S., Woods, J. A., & Evans, E. M. (2009). Impact of training modality on strength and physical function in older adults. Gerontology, 55(4), 411–416. https://doi.org/10.1159/000227804

Ory, M. G., Smith, M. L., Wade, A., Mounce, C., Wilson, A., & Parrish, R. (2010). Implementing and Disseminating an Evidence-Based Program to Prevent Falls in Older Adults, Texas, 2007-2009. Preventing Chronic Disease, 7(6), A130.

Paterson, D. H., & Warburton, D. E. (2010). Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: A systematic review related to Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-38

Perissinotto, E., Pisent, C., Sergi, G., Grigoletto, F., & Enzi, G. (2002). Anthropometric measurements in the elderly: age and gender differences. British Journal of Nutrition, 87(2), 177–186. https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn2001487

Rahman, K. (2007). Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2(2), 219–236.

Ramos, N. R., Ramos, Ó. R., & Suárez, A. J. G. (2021). Actividad física y funciones cognitivas en personas mayores: revisión sistemática de los últimos 5 años. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, (39), 81.

Ruthig, J. C., Chipperfield, J. G., Newall, N. E., Perry, R. P., & Hall, N. C. (2007). Detrimental effects of falling on health and well-being in later life: the mediating roles of perceived control and optimism. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(2), 231–248. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105307074250

Santanasto, A. J., Glynn, N. W., Newman, M. A., Taylor, C. A., Brooks, M. M., Goodpaster, B. H., & Newman, A. B. (2011). Impact of weight loss on physical function with changes in strength, muscle mass, and muscle fat infiltration in overweight to moderately obese older adults: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Obesity, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/516576

Scheffer, A. C., Schuurmans, M. J., van Dijk, N., van der Hooft, T., & de Rooij, S. E. (2007). Fear of falling: measurement strategy, prevalence, risk factors and consequences among older persons. Age and Ageing, 37(1), 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afm169

Schwenk, M., Jordan, E. D. H., Honarvararaghi, B., Mohler, J., Armstrong, D. G., & Najafi, B. (2013). Effectiveness of foot and ankle exercise programs on reducing the risk of falling in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 103(6), 534–547. https://doi.org/10.7547/1030534

Shah, T. M., Weinborn, M., Verdile, G., Sohrabi, H. R., & Martins, R. N. (2017). Enhancing Cognitive Functioning in Healthly Older Adults: a Systematic Review of the Clinical Significance of Commercially Available Computerized Cognitive Training in Preventing Cognitive Decline. Neuropsychology Review, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-016-9338-9

Sherrington, C., Michaleff, Z. A., Fairhall, N., Paul, S. S., Tiedemann, A., Whitney, J… Lord, S. R. (2017). Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(24), 1749–1757. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096547

Shields, M., Tremblay, M. S., Laviolette, M., Craig, C. L., Janssen, I., & Gorber, S. C. (2010). Fitness of Canadian adults: results from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports Sur La Santé / Statistique Canada, Centre Canadien d’information Sur La Santé, 21(1), 21–35.

Simek, E. M., McPhate, L., & Haines, T. P. (2012). Adherence to and efficacy of home exercise programs to prevent falls: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of exercise program characteristics. Preventive Medicine, 55(4), 262–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.07.007

Uzor, S., & Baillie, L. (2014). Investigating the long-term use of exergames in the home with elderly fallers. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, 2813–2822. https://doi.org/10.1145/2556288.2557160

van den Berg, T., Elders, L., de Zwart, B., & Burdorf, A. (2008). The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review. Occupational and environmental medicine, 66(4), 211–220.

Williams, M. A., Soiza, R. L., Jenkinson, A. M., & Stewart, A. (2010). EXercising with Computers in Later Life ( EXCELL ) - pilot and feasibility study of the acceptability of the Nintendo ® WiiFit in community-dwelling fallers.

Zhang, F., & Kaufman, D. (2016). Physical and Cognitive Impacts of Digital Games on Older Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 35(11), 1189–1210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464814566678




Cómo citar

Párraga Montilla, J. A., Latorre Román, P. Ángel, Cabrera Linares, J. C., Salazar Martínez, C., Villar Ortega, M., Moreno Del Castillo, R., Serrano Huete, V., & Lozano Aguilera, E. (2021). ¿Pueden los videojuegos mejorar el equilibrio en mujeres mayores de 60 años? (Can videogames improve balance in women over 60 years?). Retos, 42, 211–218. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.85931



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a

1 2 > >>