Low level of physical fitness is an early feature in preschool children with autism (El nivel bajo de la aptitud física es una característica temprana en niños preescolares con autismo)

Pedro Ángel Latorre Román, Míriam Sánchez Salvador, Jesús Salas Sánchez, Felipe García Pinillos

Resumen


Abstract. Background: Physical fitness level is a potent biomarker of health from an early age. Physical activity and Physical fitness have a similar influence on health outcomes including overweight. However, Physical activity and Physical fitness in children with autism spectrum disorders have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical fitness in preschool children with ASD. Methods: A total of 31 children, aged 3 to 6 years, participated in this study: 13 children with ASD (Age=50.23±7.62 months, 2 girls and 11boys) and 18 children without ASD (Age=51.33±11.06 months, 4 girls and 14 boys). A fitness test battery was employed. Results: Children with ASD have lower performance in physical fitness tests. However, no significant differences were found in anthropometrics characteristics, physical activity time, screen-based time and physical functioning. Conclusions: Preschoolers with ASD have an early deterioration in physical fitness. Physical activity programs at pre-school level are necessary to stimulate these abilities in children with ASD.

Resumen. Objetivo: El nivel de condición física es un biomarcador potente de la salud desde una edad temprana. La actividad física y la aptitud física tienen una influencia similar en la salud, incluyendo el sobrepeso. Sin embargo, el estudio de la actividad física y de la condición física en niños con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) ha recibido poca atención. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la condición física en niños en edad preescolar con TEA. Métodos: En este estudio participaron 31 niños de 3 a 6 años de edad: 13 niños con TEA (edad = 50,23 ± 7,62 meses, 2 niñas y 11 niños) y 18 niños sin TEA (edad = 51,33 ± 11,06 meses, 4 Niñas y 14 niños). Una batería de condición física para niños preescolares fue empleada. Resultados: Los niños con TEA tienen menor rendimiento en las pruebas de condición física. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en las características antropométricas, tiempo de actividad física, tiempo de uso de pantallas y el funcionamiento físico. Conclusiones: Los niños en edad preescolar con TEA tienen un deterioro temprano en la condición física. Los programas de actividad física a nivel preescolar son necesarios para estimular estas capacidades en niños con TEA.

Palabras clave


preschool children, neurodevelopmental disorders, fitness, physical activity (niños preescolares, autismo, fitness, actividad física)

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