Aplicación de un programa de fuerza con carga excéntrica en la readaptación de una lesión de ligamento lateral interno de la rodilla. Estudio de caso (Effect of an eccentric load resistance training program on the rehabilitation of medial collateral liga

Javier Raya-González, Pedro Gómez Piqueras, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez

Resumen


El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el efecto de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza con carga excéntrica basado en el ejercicio squat (½ squat y squat lateral) ejecutado en un dispositivo de inercia rotacional, sobre la potencia de la musculatura del tren inferior de un jugador de fútbol durante la readaptación de una lesión del ligamento lateral interno (LLI) de la rodilla. Métodos: Durante 4 semanas (3 sesiones semanales) el futbolista llevó a cabo el programa de entrenamiento de fuerza con carga excéntrica propuesto en ambas extremidades. Antes, durante y después del proceso de intervención se valoró la potencia del tren inferior de manera bilateral y unilateral, y se obtuvieron datos relativos a la potencia media, potencia pico, trabajo y duración de la repetición, tanto en fase concéntrica como excéntrica. Resultados: Se obtuvieron mejoras significativas (p≤.05) en la potencia media y pico (bilateral y unilateral) tanto en la fase concéntrica como excéntrica. Además se redujeron las asimetrías en todas las variables analizadas relativas a la potencia. Conclusiones: La aplicación de un programa de fuerza ejecutado en un dispositivo de inercia rotacional durante el proceso de recuperación funcional produce un incremento de la potencia muscular del tren inferior y disminuye la asimetría provocada por la lesión deportiva, que se refleja en la disminución del periodo de recuperación.


Abstract. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an eccentric-load training program based on squat exercises (½ squat and lateral squat) on the lower-body power of a football player during the rehabilitation process of a medial collateral ligament injury (MCL). Methods: During 4 weeks (3 sessions a week) the soccer player followed the eccentric-load training program proposed on both legs. Before, during, and after the intervention, lower-body power was evaluated bilaterally and unilaterally, and data was obtained on the mean power, peak power, work, and duration, in both concentric and eccentric phases. Results: Significant improvements (p ≤.05) in mean and maximal power (bilateral and unilateral) were obtained in both concentric and eccentric phases. Asymmetries related to power have also been reduced. Conclusions: the application of an eccentric-overload training program during the functional recovery process results in an increase in the lower-body power and reduces the asymmetry caused by a sports injury, which is reflected in the decrease in the recovery period.


Palabras clave


Rehabilitación, potencia, lesión, fútbol (Rehabilitation, maximal power output, injury, soccer)

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Referencias


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