Efectos a corto plazo de un programa de entrenamiento de sobrecarga excéntrica sobre el rendimiento físico en jugadores de fútbol de élite U-16 (Short-term effects of an eccentric-overload training program on the physical performance on U-16 elite soccer

Javier Raya-González, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Antonio Rísquez Bretones, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal

Resumen


Resumen. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza con sobrecarga excéntrica (squat lateral ejecutado en un dispositivo inercial) sobre el rendimiento en futbolistas junior de élite. Dieciséis futbolistas de 14.7 ± .2 años de edad fueron asignados aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo control (n=8, GC) y grupo de fuerza (n=8, GF). El GF complementó su entrenamiento habitual de fútbol con el programa específico de fuerza con sobrecarga excéntrica propuesto dos días a la semana durante 6 semanas. Antes y después del periodo de intervención se midió la altura de salto vertical, el tiempo de sprint lineal y con cambio de dirección (COD) y la potencia del tren inferior. Se obtuvieron mejoras sustanciales (probables a muy probables) en GF en el salto con contramovimiento (CMJ) (TE: .46), en el porcentaje de pérdida de COD-Izquierda (TE: 1.39) y en la potencia media (TE: .73) y potencia máxima (TE: .65). El análisis inter-grupos mostró mejoras sustanciales mayores en GF respecto a GC en CMJ (TE: .79), en el porcentaje de pérdida de COD-Derecha (TE: 1.14), en la potencia media (TE: 1.04) y en la potencia máxima (TE: .88). Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que incluir un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza con sobrecarga excéntrica en la programación del entrenamiento de fútbol permite optimizar la condición física específica del futbolista.

Palabras clave. Salto vertical, potencia máxima, capacidad de sprintar, cambio de dirección, fútbol.

 

Abstract. To analyse the effect of an eccentric-overload training program (i.e., lateral squat exercise using a flywheel device) on performance in junior elite soccer players. Sixteen soccer players (14.7 ± .2 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (n=8, CG) and strength group (n=8, SG). The SG complemented soccer training with a proposed eccentric-overload training program 2 days per weeks during 6 weeks. Before and after the training period jumping ability, linear and non-linear sprint and lower-limb power were measured. Substantial improvements (likely to very likely) were found in the SG in CMJ (ES: .46), percent decrement of COD-L (ES: 1.39) and Mean Power (ES: .73) and Peak Power (ES: .65). Between-groups analysis showed greater substantial improvements in SG in relation to CG in CMJ (ES: .79), percent decrement of COD-R (ES: 1.14) and Mean Power (ES: 1.04) and Peak Power (ES: .88). These results suggest that the inclusion of an eccentric-overload training program in soccer training periodization allow the optimization of the specific physical condition of soccer players.


Palabras clave


Salto vertical, potencia máxima, capacidad de sprintar, cambio de dirección, fútbol (Countermovement jump, maximal power output, sprint ability, change-of-direction, soccer)

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Referencias


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