El ejercicio aeróbico aumenta la liberación de la hormona del crecimiento en la circulación sanguínea en mujeres obesas (Aerobic Exercise Increases Release of Growth Hormone in the Blood Circulation in Obese Women)


  • Adi Pranoto Doctoral Program of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4080-9245
  • Purwo Sri Rejeki Department of Medical Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6285-4058
  • Muhammad Miftahussurur Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Airlangga - Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital - Institute of Tropical Disease
  • Ghana Firsta Yosika Study Program of Sports Coaching Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Tanjungpura
  • Mufarrihul Ihsan Sport Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga
  • Lilik Herawati Physiology Division, Department of Medical Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga
  • Ilham Rahmanto Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0916-5824
  • Shariff Halim Faculty of Health Sciences, University Technology MARA (UiTM) Pulau Pinang



Palabras clave:

aerobic exercise, growth hormone, metabolism, obesity


El ejercicio físico es uno de los moduladores del aumento de la liberación de los niveles de la hormona del crecimiento (GH) en la circulación sanguínea, pero aún se está debatiendo cuál es el modelo de ejercicio eficaz para sujetos obesos. Por tanto, este estudio tiene como objetivo demostrar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico sobre el aumento de la liberación de niveles de GH en la circulación sanguínea en mujeres obesas. Un total de 20 mujeres adultas obesas, con edades de 21,00 ± 1,08 años, fueron seleccionadas para participar en el estudio y se les realizó una intervención de ejercicio aeróbico corriendo en una cinta rodante a intensidad moderada (60-70% FCmáx) durante 40 minutos. Se utilizó el método ELISA para medir la liberación de niveles de GH en todas las muestras (antes y después del ejercicio). El análisis estadístico en este estudio utilizó una prueba t de muestra independiente con un nivel significativo del 5%. Los resultados mostraron que la liberación de niveles de GH en la circulación sanguínea fue mayor en el post-ejercicio en comparación con el pre-ejercicio después de una sesión de ejercicio aeróbico (484,92±128,29 vs 892,63±273,54 pg/mL; p=0,001) y tiene un tamaño de efecto grande con un valor d de Cohen de 1,909. También se encontró que los niveles de GH en la circulación sanguínea post-ejercicio en el grupo de ejercicio aeróbico (Exr) eran más altos que los niveles de GH en el grupo de control (Ctr) (892,63 ± 273,54 vs 542,97 ± 140,01 pg/mL; p = 0,003). y tiene un tamaño de efecto grande con un valor d de Cohen de 1,609. Este estudio demuestra que una sesión de ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada aumenta la liberación de niveles circulantes de GH en mujeres obesas. Por lo tanto, el ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada se puede utilizar como una opción de terapia alternativa para aumentar la liberación de niveles circulantes de GH en personas con obesidad.

Palabras clave: ejercicio aeróbico, hormona del crecimiento, metabolismo, obesidad.

Abstract. Physical exercise is one of the modulators in increasing the release of growth hormone (GH) levels in blood circulation, but the effective exercise model for obese subjects is still being debated. Therefore, this study aims to prove the effect of aerobic exercise on increasing the release of GH levels in the blood circulation in obese women. A total of 20 obese adult women, aged 21.00 ± 1.08 years were selected to be subjects in the study and were given one aerobic exercise intervention by running on a treadmill at moderate-intensity (60-70% HRmax) for 40 minutes. The ELISA method was used to measure the release of GH levels in all samples (pre- and post-exercise). Statistical analysis in this study used an independent sample t-test with a significant level of 5%. The results showed that the release of GH levels in the blood circulation was found to be higher in post-exercise compared to pre-exercise after one session of aerobic exercise (484.92±128.29 vs 892.63±273.54 pg/mL; p=0.001) and has a large effect size with a Cohen's d value of 1.909. GH levels in the post-exercise blood circulation in the aerobic exercise group (Exr) were also found to be higher than the GH levels in the control group (Ctr) (892.63±273.54 vs 542.97±140.01 pg/mL; p=0.003) and has a large effect size with a Cohen's d value of 1.609. This study proves that one session of aerobic exercise with moderate intensity increases the release of circulating GH levels in obese women. Therefore, aerobic exercise with moderate intensity can be used as an alternative therapy option to increase the release of circulating GH levels in individuals with obesity.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, growth hormone, metabolism, obesity.


Al-Samerria, S., & Radovick, S. (2021). The Role of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) in the Control of Neuroendocrine Regulation of Growth. Cells, 10(10), 2664. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102664.

Alvarez, C. E., Herrera Monge, M. F., Herrera González, E., Villalobos Víquez, G., & Araya Vargas, G. (2020). Sobrepeso, obesidad, niveles de actividad física y autoestima de la niñez centroamericana: un análisis comparativo entre países (Overweight, obesity, physical activity levels, and self-esteem in Central American children: comparative analysis between cou. Retos, 37, 238–246. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v37i37.71680.

Berry, N. T., Hubal, M., & Wideman, L. (2018). The effects of an acute exercise bout on GH and IGF-1 in prediabetic and healthy African Americans: A pilot study investigating gene expression. PloS one, 13(1), e0191331. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191331.

Blüher, M. (2019). Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nature reviews. Endocrinology, 15(5), 288–298. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-019-0176-8.

Camacho, S., & Ruppel, A. (2017). Is the calorie concept a real solution to the obesity epidemic?. Global health action, 10(1), 1289650. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1289650.

Dávila Grisalez, A. A., Mazuera Quiceno, C. A., Carreño Herrera, A. L., & Henao Corrales, J. L. (2021). Effect of a high intensity aerobic interval training program on an overweight or obese female school population. Retos, 39, 453–458. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.78200.

Deemer, S. E., Castleberry, T. J., Irvine, C., Newmire, D. E., Oldham, M., King, G. A., Ben-Ezra, V., Irving, B. A., & Biggerstaff, K. D. (2018). Pilot study: an acute bout of high intensity interval exercise increases 12.5 h GH secretion. Physiological reports, 6(2), e13563. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13563.

Dichtel, L. E., Yuen, K. C., Bredella, M. A., Gerweck, A. V., Russell, B. M., Riccio, A. D., Gurel, M. H., Sluss, P. M., Biller, B. M., & Miller, K. K. (2014). Overweight/Obese adults with pituitary disorders require lower peak growth hormone cutoff values on glucagon stimulation testing to avoid overdiagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 99(12), 4712–4719. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-2830.

Dinas, P. C., Markati, A. S., & Carrillo, A. E. (2014). Exercise-Induced Biological and Psychological Changes in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Review of Recent Evidence. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014, Article ID 964627, 11 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/964627.

Dourida, M., Tzanela, M., Asimakopoulou, A., Botoula, E., Koutsilieris, M., & Philippou, A. (2019). Endocrine responses after a single bout of moderate aerobic exercise in healthy adult humans. Journal of applied biomedicine, 17(1), 46. https://doi.org/10.32725/jab.2018.004.

Gar, C., Rottenkolber, M., Haenelt, M., Potzel, A. L., Kern-Matschilles, S., Then, C., Seissler, J., Bidlingmaier, M., & Lechner, A. (2020). Altered metabolic and hormonal responses to moderate exercise in overweight/obesity. Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 107, 154219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154219.

Greenstein, B., & Wood, D. F., (2011). The Endocrine System at a Glance 3rd Edition, Kindle Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gough, L., Castell, L. M., Gatti, R., & Godfrey, R. J. (2016). Growth Hormone Concentrations in Different Body Fluids Before and After Moderate Exercise. Sports medicine - open, 2(1), 30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-016-0054-z.

Guyton, A. C., & Hall, J. E. (2014). Medical Physiology 12th Edition. Jakarta: EGC Medical Book.

Hejla, D., Dror, N., Pantanowitz, M., Nemet, D., & Eliakim, A. (2022). Reduced Growth Hormone Response to Anaerobic Exercise Among Children With Overweight and Obesity. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 36(8), 2194–2197. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003798.

Higgins, J.K., & Kleimbaun, A.P. (1985). Design Methodology for Randomized Clinical Trials; Family Health International: Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 24–25.

Høgild, M. L., Gudiksen, A., Pilegaard, H., Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H., Pedersen, S. B., Møller, N., Jørgensen, J. O. L., & Jessen, N. (2019). Redundancy in regulation of lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle during prolonged fasting in obese men. Physiological reports, 7(21), e14285. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14285.

Hruby, A., & Hu, F. B. (2015). The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture. PharmacoEconomics, 33(7), 673–689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-014-0243-x.

Kraemer, W. J., Ratamess, N. A., & Nindl, B. C. (2017). Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 122(3), 549–558. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00599.2016.

Mannerkorpi, K., Landin-Wilhelmsen, K., Larsson, A., Cider, Å., Arodell, O., & Bjersing, J. L. (2017). Acute effects of physical exercise on the serum insulin-like growth factor system in women with fibromyalgia. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1402-y.

Misra, M., Bredella, M. A., Tsai, P., Mendes, N., Miller, K. K., & Klibanski, A. (2008). Lower growth hormone and higher cortisol are associated with greater visceral adiposity, intramyocellular lipids, and insulin resistance in overweight girls. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 295(2), E385–E392. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00052.2008.

Olarescu, N. C., Gunawardane, K., Hansen, T. K., Møller, N., & Jørgensen, J. O. L. (2019). Normal Physiology of Growth Hormone in Adults. In K. R. Feingold (Eds.) et. al., Endotext. MDText.com, Inc.

Oliver, S. R., Rosa, J. S., Minh, T. D., Pontello, A. M., Flores, R. L., Barnett, M., & Galassetti, P. R. (2010). Dose-dependent relationship between severity of pediatric obesity and blunting of the growth hormone response to exercise. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 108(1), 21–27. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00589.2009.

Pranoto, A., Cahyono, M. B. A., Yakobus, R., Izzatunnisa, N., Ramadhan, R. N., Rejeki, P. S., Miftahussurur, M., Effendi, W. I., Wungu, C. D. K., & Yamaoka, Y. (2023). Long-Term Resistance-Endurance Combined Training Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Young Adult Females with Obesity. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 11(3), 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11030054.

Pranoto, A., Rejeki, P., Miftahussurur, M., Setiawan, H., Yosika, G., Munir, M., Maesaroh, S., Purwoto, S., Waritsu, C. & Yamaoka, Y. (2023). Single 30 min treadmill exercise session suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in obese female adolescents. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 34(2), 235-242. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2022-0196.

Rejeki, P. S., Pranoto, A., Rahmanto, I., Izzatunnisa, N., Yosika, G. F., Hernaningsih, Y., Wungu, C. D. K., & Halim, S. (2023). The Positive Effect of Four-Week Combined Aerobic-Resistance Training on Body Composition and Adipokine Levels in Obese Females. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 11(4), 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11040090.

Romieu, I., Dossus, L., Barquera, S., Blottière, H. M., Franks, P. W., Gunter, M., Hwalla, N., Hursting, S. D., Leitzmann, M., Margetts, B., Nishida, C., Potischman, N., Seidell, J., Stepien, M., Wang, Y., Westerterp, K., Winichagoon, P., Wiseman, M., Willett, W. C., & IARC working group on Energy Balance and Obesity (2017). Energy balance and obesity: what are the main drivers?. Cancer causes & control : CCC, 28(3), 247–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-017-0869-z.

Sabag, A., Chang, D., & Johnson, N. A. (2021). Growth Hormone as a Potential Mediator of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Reductions in Visceral Adipose Tissue. Frontiers in physiology, 12, 623570. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.623570.

Santos, V. O. A., Browne, R. A. V., Souza, D. C., Matos, V. A. F., Macêdo, G. A. D., Farias-Junior, L. F., Farias-Júnior, J. C., Costa, E. C., & Fayh, A. P. T. (2019). Effects of High-Intensity Interval and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Levels in Inactive Obese Males: A Crossover Trial. Journal of sports science & medicine, 18(3), 390–398.

Sasaki, H., Morishima, T., Hasegawa, Y., Mori, A., Ijichi, T., Kurihara, T., & Goto, K. (2014). 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training does not alter the exercise-induced growth hormone response in sedentary men. SpringerPlus, 3, 336. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-336.

Sauro, L. M., & Kanaley, J. A. (2003). The effect of exercise duration and mode on the growth hormone responses in young women on oral contraceptives. European journal of applied physiology, 90(1-2), 69–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0863-x.

Savastano, S., Di Somma, C., Barrea, L., & Colao, A. (2014). The complex relationship between obesity and the somatropic axis: the long and winding road. Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society, 24(6), 221–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2014.09.002.

Solis-Urra, P., Fernández-Cueto, N., Nanjarí, R., Huber-Pérez, T., Cid-Arnes, M. P., Zurita-Corvalán, N., Rodriguez-Rodriguez, F., & Cristi-Montero, C. (2019). A mejor condición física mejores resultados de una ley contra la obesidad (Better fitness, better results of a law against obesity). Retos, 36, 17–21. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v36i36.66782.

Stanley, T. L., & Grinspoon, S. K. (2015). Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on visceral fat, metabolic, and cardiovascular indices in human studies. Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society, 25(2), 59–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2014.12.005.

Strasser B. (2013). Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1281(1), 141–159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06785.x.

Sugiharto, Merawati, D., Pranoto, A., & Susanto, H. (2022). Physiological response of endurance exercise as a growth hormone mediator in adolescent women's. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology, 34(1), 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2022-0060.

Susanto, H., Sugiharto, Taufiq, A., Pranoto, A., & Purnomo, J. D. T. (2023). Dynamic alteration of plasma levels of betatrophin in younger female onset obesity post acute moderate-intensity exercise training. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 30(2), 103546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.103546.

Wang, X., Wang, S., Wu, H., Jiang, M., Xue, H., Zhu, Y., Wang, C., Zha, X., & Wen, Y. (2020). Human growth hormone level decreased in women aged <60 years but increased in men aged >50 years. Medicine, 99(2), e18440. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018440.

Wood, C. J., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., Law, R., & Smyth, N. (2018). Physical fitness and prior physical activity are both associated with less cortisol secretion during psychosocial stress. Anxiety, stress, and coping, 31(2), 135–145. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2017.1390083.




Cómo citar

Pranoto, A., Rejeki, P. S., Miftahussurur, M., Yosika, G. F., Ihsan, M., Herawati, L., Rahmanto, I., & Halim, S. (2024). El ejercicio aeróbico aumenta la liberación de la hormona del crecimiento en la circulación sanguínea en mujeres obesas (Aerobic Exercise Increases Release of Growth Hormone in the Blood Circulation in Obese Women). Retos, 51, 726–731. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v51.99944



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a

1 2 3 > >>