Opiniones de los estudiantes de secundaria sobre la educación física: Un estudio comparado entre cuatro países europeo (Middle school students’ views about physical education: A comparative study between four European countries)

  • Antonio Perić Gimnazija, Secondary Comprehensive School, Zagreb, Croatia
  • António Rodrigues Laboratório de Pedagogia, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana e UIDEF, Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
  • Katarzyna Pankowska-Jurczyk Fundacja Wsparcie i Rozwój, Warszawa, Polska
  • Olegas Batutis Prienai "Žiburys" gymnasium, Prienai, Lithuania
  • João Costa School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
  • Marcos Onofre Laboratório de Pedagogia, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana e UIDEF, Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
  • João Martins Laboratório de Pedagogia, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana e UIDEF, Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Centro Interdisciplinar do Estudo da Performance Humana (CIPER), Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Palabras clave: educación física, adolescentes, actitud, percepción de competencia, educación comparada

Resumen

Resumen. Se hace necesaria una investigación de carácter comparada e internacional para contrastar las opiniones de los estudiantes sobre el papel de la Educación Física (EF) en la promoción de estilos de vida activos y saludables, particularmente en contextos no anglófonos. Así, el objetivo del estudio fue examinar las opiniones de los estudiantes de secundaria de cuatro países europeos con respecto a la EF, teniendo en cuenta las variables país y género. En este estudio transversal, 1244 estudiantes de secundaria (635 niños; 14.3±0.9 años) de una escuela secundaria pública en Croacia, Lituania, Polonia y Portugal, respondieron a un cuestionario sobre: (a) la actitud, (b) la importancia (c) objetivo principal, y (d) la percepción de competencia en EF. Se aplicaron las pruebas ANOVA y T-de-Student para comparar las opiniones, entre los países, de los estudiantes, y de los niños y las niñas en cada país. En general, los resultados muestran que las opiniones de los estudiantes hacia la EF fueron principalmente positivas, pero se encontraron diferencias importantes entre los estudiantes de los cuatro países. En todos los países, los niños tienen una actitud más positiva, le dan más importancia a la EF y se perciben a sí mismos como más competentes que las niñas. Independientemente del contexto sociocultural, es necesario explorar más la naturaleza de las diferencias encontradas y mejorar las actitudes de las niñas hacia la EF. Además, se necesitan más estudios comparativos con una amplia gama de contextos socioculturales para evaluar en qué grado este tipo de diferencias está presente.

Abstract. Comparable and cross-national research is needed to examine students’ views on the role of physical education (PE) in promoting active and healthy lifestyles, particularly in non-English speaking contexts. Thus, the present study aims to investigate and compare the views of middle school students from four European countries towards PE, considering cross-national and gender variables. In this cross-sectional study, 1244 middle school students (635 boys, 609 girls; Mean age = 14.3±0.9 years) from a public secondary school in Croatia, Lithuania, Poland and Portugal, answered to a questionnaire about their: (a) PE attitude, (b) PE importance, (c) PE main aim, and (d) perception of competence in PE. ANOVA and Student t-test were used to compare students’ views across countries, and to compare boys’ and girls’ views within each country. Overall, results show that the students’ views towards PE were mainly positive but important differences were found across the students from the four European countries. In all countries, boys have a more positive attitude, gave more importance to PE and perceived themselves as more competent than girls. Regardless of the sociocultural context, this study suggests that there is a cross-national need to further explore the nature of the differences found and increase young girl’s attitudes towards PE. Additionally, more comparative studies are needed with a broad range of sociocultural contexts to assess the extent to which this type of differences is present. 

Citas

Aaro, L., Wold, B., Kannas, L., & Rimpela, M. (1986). Health behaviour in schoolchildren A WHO cross national survey: a presentation of philosophy, methods and selected results of the first survey. Health Promotion International, 1(1), 17-33.

Bailey, R., Armour, K., Kirk, K., Jess, M., Pickup, I., Sandford, R., & Group, B. P. E. a. S. P. S. I. (2009). The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: an academic review. Research Papers in Education, 24(1), 1-27.

Baños, R. (2020). Intención de práctica, satisfacción con la educación física y con la vida en función del género en estudiantes mexicanos y españoles. Retos, 37, 412-418.

Beni, S. (2017). Meaningful experiences in physical education and youth sport: A review of the literature. Quest, 69(3), 291–312.

Biddle, S., Atkin, A., Cavill, N., & Foster, C. (2011). Correlates of physical activity in youth: a review of quantitative systematic reviews. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4(1), 25-49.

Bronikowski, M. (2014). Where is Physical and Health Education heading in Poland? In M.-K. C. E. CR (Ed.), Physical education and health: Global perspectives and best practice (pp. 227-238). Urbana: Sagemore Publishing.

Cairney, J., Kwan, M. Y. W., Velduizen, S., Hay, J., Bray, S. R., & Faught, B. E. (2012). Gender, perceived competence and the enjoyment of physical education in children: a longitudinal examination. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 26. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-26

Camacho-Minano, J., LaVoi, N., & Barr-Anderson, D. (2011). Interventions to promote physical activity among young and adolescent girls: A systematic review. Health Education Research, 26(6), 1025-1049.

Carreiro da Costa, F., & Marques, A. (2011). Promoting active and healthy lifestyles at school: Views of students, teachers, and parents in Portugal. In K. Hardman & K. Green (Eds.), Contemporary issues in Physical Education: International Perspectives (pp. 249-268): Meyer & Meyer Sports.

Carroll, B., & Loumidis, J. (2001). Children’s Perceived Competence and Enjoyment in Physical Education and Physical Activity Outside School. European Physical Education Review, 7(1), 24-43.

Chen, S., Kim, Y., & Gao, Z. (2014). The contributing role of physical education in youth's daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. BMC Public Health, 14, 110. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-110.

Corr, M., McSharry, J., & Murtagh, E. (2019). Adolescent Girls’ Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. American Journal of Health Promotion, 26(6), 806-819.

Delfosse, C., Ledent, M., Carreiro da Costa, F., Almond, L., Cloes, M., & Piéron, M. (1997). Les attitudes de jeunes européens à l'égard de l'école et du cours d'éducation physique. Sport, 159/160, 96-105.

Dismore, H., & Bailey, R. (2011). Fun and enjoyment in physical education: Young People’s Attitudes. Research Papers in Education, 26(4), 499-516.

Dismore, H., Bailey, R., & Izaki, T. (2006). Japanese and English School Students’ Views of Physical Education: A comparative study. International Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4, 74-85.

Dobbins, M., Husson, H., DeCorby, K., & LaRocca, R. (2013). School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 21(1), CD007651. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyq272

Enright, E., & O'Sullivan, M. (2010). 'Can I do it in my pyjamas?' Negotiating a physical education curriculum with teenage girls. European Physical Education Review, 16, 203-222.

Eurydice. (2013). Physical education and sport at school in Europe Eurycide Report. Luxembourg: European Commission.

Fox, K. (1990). The Physical Self Perception Profile Manual. De Kal, IL: Office for Health Promotion, Northern Illinois University.

Fraile-García, J., Tejero-González, C., Esteban-Cornejo, I., & Veiga, O. (2019). Asociación entre disfrute, autoeficacia motriz, actividad física y rendimiento académico en educación física. Retos, 36, 58-63.

Góis, F., Catunda, R., Gouveia, E., Martins, J., Hercules, E., & Marques, A. (2020). Caracterização dos comportamentos de ensino, contexto de aula e atividade física em dois programas distintos de educação física. Retos, 38, 379-384.

Guthold, R., Stevens, G., Riley, L., & Bull, F. (2019). Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1·6 million participants. The Lancet. doi: 10.1016/ S2352-4642(19)30323-2

Haerens, L., Kirk, D., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). Motivational profiles for secondary school physical education and its relationship to the adoption of a physically active lifestyle among university students. European Physical Education Review, 16, 117.

Hambleton, R., & Patsula, L. (1998). Adapting tests for use in multiple languages and cultures. Social Indicators Research, 45, 153-171.

Hardman, K., & Marshall, J. (2009). Second world-wide survey of school physical education: Final report. Berlin: ICSSPE.

Hashim, H., Grove, J., & Whipp, P. (2008). Relationships Between Physical Education Enjoyment Processes, Physical Activity and Exercise Habit Strength among Western Australian High School Students. Asian Journal of Exercise & Sports Science, 5(1), 23-30.

Heredia, C., Sánchez, A., Gallego, F., Zagalaz, J., & Moral, P. (2019). Análisis del tiempo de clase en EF y propuestas para su optimización. Retos, 35, 126-129.

Hoeppner, B., Kelly, J., Urbanoski, K., & Slaymaker, V. (2011). Comparative utility of a single-item versus multiple-item measure of self-efficacy in predicting relapse among young adults. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41(3), 305-312.

Holzweg, M., Scheuer, C., Costa, J., & Onofre, M. (2019). EuPEO Intellectual Output 2. Intermediate Report. European Preliminary Results - English version. EuPEO Intellectual Output 2. Intermediate Report. European Preliminary Results - English version. Available at: http://www.eupeo.eu/project-products/intelectualoutputs/item/download/157_7632876f983995c3b0f0023b90e554e1 (accessed 16 December 2019).

Kjønniksen, L., Anderssen, N., & Wold, B. (2009). Organized youth sport as a predictor of physical activity in adulthood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5), 646-654.

Klein, C., & Hardman, K. (2008). Physical education and sport education in the European Union. Paris: EPS.

León-Díaz, O., Arija-Mediavilla, A., Muñoz, L., & Santos-Pastor, M. (2020). Las metodologías activas en Educación Física. Una aproximación al estado actual desde la percepción de los docentes en la Comunidad de Madrid. Retos, 38, 587-594.

Marques, A., André, J., Martins, J., Sarmento, H., & Diniz, J. (2014). The prevalence of sedentary behaviours and physical activity of urban adolescents. A cross-sectional study using ecological momentary assessment. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, 64(3), 427-435.

Marques, A., Henriques-Neto, D., Peralta, M., Martins, J., Demetriou, Y., Schönbach, D., & Gaspar de Matos, M. (2020). Prevalence of Physical Activity among Adolescents from 105 Low, Middle, and High-income Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 3145. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17093145

Martins, J. (2015). Educação Física e Estilos de Vida: Porque são os adolescentes fisicamente (in)ativos? (Doutoramento), University de Lisboa, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Lisboa.

Martins, J., Marques, A., Peralta, M., Palmeira, A., & Carreiro da Costa, F. (2017). Correlates of physical activity in young people: A narrative review of reviews. Implications for physical education based on a socio-ecological approach. Retos, 31, 292-299.

Martins, J., Marques, A., Rodrigues, A., Sarmento, H., Onofre, M., & Carreiro da Costa, F. (2018). Exploring the perspectives of physically active and inactive adolescents: how does physical education influence their lifestyles? Sport, Education and Society, 23(5), 505-519. doi: DOI:10.1080/13573322.2016.1229290

Martins, J., Marques, A., Sarmento, H., & Carreiro da Costa, F. (2015). Adolescents’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Health Education Research, 30(5), 742-755. doi: DOI:10.1093/her/cyv042

O'Sullivan, M., & MacPhail, A. (Eds.). (2010). Young people's voices in physical education and youth sport. London: Routledge.

OECD. (2019). OECD future of education 2030. Making physical education dynamic and inclusive for 2030. International curriculum analysis.

Onofre, M., Marques, A., Moreira, R., Holzweg, M., Repond, R., & Scheuer, C. (2012a). Physical education and sport in Europe: From individual reality to collective desirability (Part 1). International Journal of Physical Education, 49(2), 17-31.

Onofre, M., Marques, A., Moreira, R., Holzweg, M., Repond, R., & Scheuer, C. (2012b). Physical education and sport in Europe: From individual reality to collective desirability (Part 2). International Journal of Physical Education, 49(3), 17-30.

Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2005). International comparison of physical education. Concepts, problems, prospects.: Meyer & Meyer.

Puisiene, E., Volbekiene, V., Kavaliauskas, S., & Cikotiene, I. (2005). Physical Education in Lithuania. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Verlag.

Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Self-Determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Silverman, S. (2017). Attitude Research in Physical Education: A Review. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 36, 303-312.

Silverman, S., & Subramaniam, P. (1999). Student attitude toward physical education and physical activity: A review of measurement issues and outcomes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19, 97-125.

Tannehill, D., MacPhail, A., Walsh, J., & Woods, C. (2015). What young people say about physical activity: The Children’s Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study. Sport, Education and Society, 20(4), 442-462.

UNESCO. (2014). UNESCO-NWCPEA. World-wide survey of school physical education. Paris, France: UNESCO.

UNESCO. (2015). Quality physical education: Guidelines for policy-makers. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

USDHHS. (2018). 2018 physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington: USDHHS.

Van den Berghe, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Cardon, G., Kirk, D., & Haerens, L. (2014). Research on self-determination in physical education: Key findings and proposals for future research. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 97-121.

Vega, H., Mayorga-Vega, D., Ornelas, J., Pérez, J., & García, P. (2019). Motivación hacia la clase de educación física en preadolescentes mexicanos y españoles. Retos, 26, 216-219.

Warburton, D., & Bredin, S. (2017). Health benefits of physical activity: a systematic review of current systematic reviews. Current Opoinion on Cardiology, 32. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000437

WHO. (2018a). Croatia Physical Activity Factsheet 2018.

WHO. (2018b). Lithuania Physical Activity Factsheet 2018.

WHO. (2018c). Poland Physical Activity Factsheet 2018.

WHO. (2018d). Portugal Physical Activity Factsheet 2018.

Publicado
2020-07-31
Cómo citar
Perić, A., Rodrigues, A., Pankowska-Jurczyk, K., Batutis, O., Costa, J., Onofre, M., & Martins, J. (2020). Opiniones de los estudiantes de secundaria sobre la educación física: Un estudio comparado entre cuatro países europeo (Middle school students’ views about physical education: A comparative study between four European countries). Retos, 39, 396-402. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.79755
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas