Autopercepciones de salud, satisfacción con la vida y vitalidad subjetiva de los adolescentes durante la pandemia de COVID-19: un análisis basado en el nivel educativo, género y el estado de actividad física. (Adolescents’ self-perceived health, life satisfaction and subjective vitality during the COVID-19 pan-demic: an analysis based on education level, gender and physical activity status.)

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v57.104528

Palabras clave:

Palabras clave: Adolescentes; salud auto-percibida; vitalidad; satisfacción con la vida; actividad física; COVID-19.

Resumen

Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, las interrupciones en las rutinas de los adolescentes se manifestaron en un aumento de comportamientos sedentarios, una reducción de la actividad física (AF), contactos sociales disminuidos y efectos adversos en la salud mental. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar y comparar las auto-percepciones de salud, vitalidad y satisfacción con la vida de los adolescentes según el género, la AF y los niveles de educación durante el período restrictivo de la pandemia antes del confinamiento de enero de 2021. Participaron un total de 1369 estudiantes portugueses (621 niños y 748 niñas; edad media: 14.4 años; DE: 1.74). Las diferencias entre grupos se analizaron mediante ANCOVA, considerando la edad, el IMC estandarizado, el estatus socioeconómico y la AF moderada a vigorosa diaria tanto antes como durante la pandemia. Solo el 3.1% de los adolescentes cumplían con las pautas internacionales de AF. Los resultados indicaron niveles generalmente bajos de auto-percepciones de salud en los adolescentes, especialmente entre las niñas. El estudio arroja luz sobre las auto-percepciones de salud y bienestar de los adolescentes durante la pandemia de COVID-19, destacando las asociaciones entre las medidas restrictivas y la percepción de salud y los niveles de AF de los adolescentes. Futuros estudios son necesarios para evaluar las auto-percepciones de los estudiantes al volver a la normalidad y comprender los efectos negativos persistentes em el bienestar de los adolescentes.

Palabras clave: Adolescentes; salud auto-percibida; vitalidad; satisfacción con la vida; actividad física; COVID-19.

Abstract. During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruptions to adolescents' routines manifested in increased sedentary behaviors, reduced physical activity (PA), diminished social contacts, and adverse effects on mental health. The study's objective was to analyze and compare adolescents' self-perceptions concerning health, vitality, and life satisfaction based on gender, PA, and education levels during the pandemic's restrictive timeframe before the January 2021 lockdown. A total of 1369 Portuguese students (621 boys and 748 girls; Mage: 14.4 years; SD: 1.74) participated in this study. Group differences were analyzed via ANCOVA, considering age, standardized BMI, socioeconomic status, and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA both pre- and during the pandemic. Only 3.1% of adolescents adhered to international PA guidelines. Results indicated generally low levels of adolescents' health self-perceptions, particularly among girls. The study sheds light on adolescents' self-perceptions of health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing the associations between restrictive measures and adolescents' health perceptions and PA levels. Future studies are necessary to assess students' self-perceptions upon returning to normalcy and understand lingering negative effects on adolescents' well-being.

Keywords: Adolescents; self-perceived health; vitality; life satisfaction; physical activity; COVID-19.

Biografía del autor/a

Carlos Mata , Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa

Doctor en Educación, con especialidad en Didáctica de la Educación Física y el Deporte, por la Facultad de Cinética Humana de la Universidad de Lisboa.

Participa como investigador en el Centro de Estudios en Educación de la Facultad de Cinética Humana de la Universidad de Lisboa. Profesor de Educación Física en el Ministerio de Educación de Portugal desde 1995. Sus intereses de investigación están relacionados con la Educación Física, la actividad física en niños y adolescentes, la aptitud física y la salud.

Marcos Onofre , Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa

Associate Professor at The Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, head of the PE Teaching Master Degree, head of the specialization on PE and Sport Didactics at the Education doctoral program, and head of the FMH Pole from the Research and Development Centre on Education and Training from the Education Institute of University of Lisbon. He is with European Physical Education Association as vice-president. 

Athanasios Papaioannou , Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Greece

Professor of Sport Psychology and the current Dean of the School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences of the university of Thessaly. He is the founder of the Master’s program in Psychology of Exercise and he has been the coordinator for the university of Thessaly of the Erasmus Mundus programme “European Master’s in Sport and Exercise Psychology”. He has been the scientific coordinator of national and European projects aiming to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles of children and adolescents. Currently he is the Principal Investigator of the European project “Identifying and Motivating youth who mostly need Physical ACTivity (IMPACT)” collaborating with partners from 5 European universities, four European educational authorities and 3 European Physical Education Associations. His research interests are mainly related to motivation, physical activity promotion and health-related behaviours.  

João Martins , Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa

Auxiliar Professor at the Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisbon, Portugal. His research interests are mainly related to quality physical education, physical literacy, 24h movement guidelines, physical activity, health and active lifestyles promotion.

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2024-06-10

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Mata, C., Onofre, M., Papaioannou, A. ., & Martins, J. . (2024). Autopercepciones de salud, satisfacción con la vida y vitalidad subjetiva de los adolescentes durante la pandemia de COVID-19: un análisis basado en el nivel educativo, género y el estado de actividad física. (Adolescents’ self-perceived health, life satisfaction and subjective vitality during the COVID-19 pan-demic: an analysis based on education level, gender and physical activity status.). Retos, 57, 399–406. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v57.104528

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