Aspectos centrales de la identificación y desarrollo de talentos deportivos: revisión sistemática (Central aspects of the identification and development of sports talents: a systematic review)

  • Jairo Alejandro Fernandez Ortega Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6731-2645
  • Jeansy Alonso Rodriguez Buitrago Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales
  • Diego Alonso Sanchez Rodriguez Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales
Palabras clave: Especialización temprana, entrenamiento intensivo, diversificación de deportes, jóvenes atletas, edad relativa., (Early sport specialization, intensive training, sports diversification, young athletes, relative age effect)

Resumen

 La detección y el desarrollo de talentos deportivos ha sido durante décadas una estrategia utilizada a nivel internacional con el propósito de obtener deportistas de elite y para ello recluta desde edades muy tempranas a niños y niñas que son sometidos a elevados niveles de entrenamiento. Objetivo: el propósito de esta revisión fue identificar y sintetizar la literatura más importante sobre los efectos de la edad relativa (EER), el volumen de entrenamiento (VE), especialización temprana (ET) y diversificación de la práctica deportiva. (DPD) en el éxito deportivo.  Metodología: Se realizaron búsquedas electrónicas en PubMed, ScienceDirect, SPORTDiscus (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Web of Science, Scirus, Hinari, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus y Ovid utilizando las palabras clave: edad relativa, especialización temprana, volumen de entrenamiento, diversificación deportiva.  Resultados: Después de la selección contra los criterios establecidos se incluyeron 77 artículos fueron completamente revisados y contenían datos relevantes sobre EER, VE, ET y DPD. La calidad de la evidencia revisada fue buena. Conclusiones: La evidencia científica indica que el éxito en los deportistas de elite y súper elite, no está correlacionado con el VE, la ET, la EER. Estos hallazgos deben ser cuidadosamente considerados por todos aquellos involucrados en la identificación y desarrollo de los deportistas.

Abstract. The detection and development of sports talents has been for decades a strategy used internationally with the purpose of obtaining elite athletes, for this, it recruits boys and girls from a very early age who are subjected to high levels of training. Objective: The purpose of this review was to identify and synthesize the most important literature on the effects of relative age (ER), training volume (TV), early specialization (ES), and diversification of sports practice. (DSP) in sports success.  Methodology: online search was made in PubMed, ScienceDirect, SPORTDiscus (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Web of Science, Scirus, Hinari, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and Ovid using the keywords: relative age effect, early sport specialization, volume training, sports diversification. After selection based on the established criteria, 77 articles were included. They were completely reviewed and contained relevant data on ER, TV, ET, and DSP. The quality of the evidence reviewed was excellent in general terms. Conclusion: scientific evidence indicates that success in elite and super-elite athletes is not correlated with TV, ES, ER. These findings must be carefully considered by all those involved in the identification and development of athletes.

Biografía del autor/a

Jairo Alejandro Fernandez Ortega, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia
Laboratorio de Fisiolíga del Ejercicio, Facultad de Educación Física
Jeansy Alonso Rodriguez Buitrago, Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, programa Ciencias del deporte
Diego Alonso Sanchez Rodriguez, Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, programa Ciencias del deporte

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Publicado
2020-07-24
Cómo citar
Fernandez Ortega, J., Rodriguez Buitrago, J., & Sanchez Rodriguez, D. (2020). Aspectos centrales de la identificación y desarrollo de talentos deportivos: revisión sistemática (Central aspects of the identification and development of sports talents: a systematic review). Retos, (39), 915-928. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v0i39.79323
Sección
Revisiones teóricas