Efectos de la velocidad de entrenamiento en fuerza sobre diversas manifestaciones de la fuerza en mujeres adultas mayores (Effect of the velocity resistance training on various manifestations of resistance in older women)

  • Jairo Alejandro Fernandez Ortega Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6731-2645
  • Luz Amelia Hoyos Cuartas Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia
Palabras clave: Entrenamiento de potencia, ejercicios de fuerza, envejecimiento, fuerza, rendimiento físico, alta velocidad, entrenamiento de fuerza (Power training, Resistance exercise, Aging, Strength, Physical performance, high-velocity, resistance training)

Resumen

La realización de tareas diarias, como caminar, subir escaleras o levantar  objetos, requiere fuerza y potencia muscular. Las reducciones asociadas a la edad en la fuerza y la potencia pueden afectar la capacidad del  adulto mayor para  llevar a cabo este tipo de actividades. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue examinar los efectos de dos tipos de entrenamiento en fuerza (PEF) de 16 semanas, uno realizado a alta velocidad (GAV), versus uno a baja velocidad (GBV), sobre, la fuerza y potencia máxima muscular, en un grupo de adultas mayores. Metodología: 86 mujeres con edades entre 60-81 años participaron de forma voluntaria en el estudio y fueron asignadas de forma aleatoria al GAV (Tres series a una velocidad de 0.60m/s, con pérdidas máxima del 10% de velocidad) o al GBV. (Tres series de 10 repeticiones al 70% de 1RM) Los grupos realizaron tres entrenamientos semanales. Antes y después del PE se evaluó: la fuerza máxima (1RM),  la potencia pico (Pp) y  la velocidad media propulsiva (VMP),  en extensión en piernas y de brazos, la fuerza prensil, la velocidad de la marcha (VM),  y la fuerza resistencia y agilidad (batería senior fitness test). Resultados: después del periodo de entrenamiento se observaron mejoras significativas (p <0.05) en todas las pruebas en los dos grupos. Sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos por el GAV fueron significativamente (p<0.05) superiores a los del GBV, en las pruebas de capacidad funcional, VM, VMP y Pp. En las pruebas de fuerza máxima y fuerza prensil las diferencias no fueron significativas. Conclusión: El entrenamiento en fuerza realizado a altas velocidades parece tener un mejor efecto en el fuerza resistencia y agilidad y en la potencia muscular, que el entrenamiento de fuerza realizado a baja velocidad.


Abstract. Performing daily tasks, such as walking, climbing stairs or lifting objects, requires strength and muscular power. Age-related reductions in strength and potency may affect the ability of the elderly to carry out these types of activities. Objective: the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a sixteen-week strength training program (PE) performed at high speed (GAV) versus a traditionally executed program (GBV), on functional performance, maximum strength, and muscle power in a group of elderly women. Methodology: 86 women aged between 60-81 years old participated voluntarily in the study and were assigned randomly to the GAV (three series at 0.60m/s speed, with maximum losses of 10% speed) or to the GBV (three series with three sets at 70% of 1RM). Both groups performed three weekly training sessions. The maximum strength of upper and lower limbs (1RM), prehensile strength, walking speed, maximum power, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), and functional performance (senior fitness test) were evaluated before and after the PE. Results: significant improvements were observed (p<0.05) in all the tests in the two groups after the twelve weeks of training. However, the results of GAV were significantly (p <0.05) higher than those of GBV regarding agility and dynamic equilibrium, stationary walking, sitting and standing, walking speed over 4 and 6 meters/hour, MPV, and peak power. The differences were not significant in the tests of maximum strength and prehensile force. Conclusion: Strength training performed at high speed seems to have a better effect on functional performance and muscle power than strength training performed at low speed.

Biografía del autor/a

Jairo Alejandro Fernandez Ortega, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia
Laboratorio de Fisiologia del Ejercicio, Facultad de educación Física
Luz Amelia Hoyos Cuartas, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia
Licenciatura en Deporte, Facultad de Educación Física

Citas

Armstrong, L.; Casa, D.; Millard-Stafford, M.; Moran, D.; W Pyne, S.; y Roberts, W. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand: Exertional heat illness during training and competition Med Sci Sports Exerc; 39(3) 556- 72 https://doi.org./10.1249/MSS.0b013e31802fa199

Bean, J.; Herman, S.; Kiely, D.; Frey, I.; Leveille, S.; Fielding, R. y Frontera, W. (2004). Increased Velocity Exercise Specific to Task (InVEST) training: a pilot study exploring effects on leg power, balance, and mobility in community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 52(5), 799-804. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52222.x

Bottaro, M.; Machado, S.; Nogueira, W.; Scales, R.; y Veloso, J. (2007). Effect of high versus low-velocity resistance training on muscular fitness and functional performance in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol, 99(3), 257-264. doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0343-1

Brady, A.; y Straight, C. (2014). Muscle capacity and physical function in older women: What are the impacts of resistance training? Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3(3), 179-188. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2014.04.002

Brochu, M.; Savage, P.; Lee, M.; Dee, J.; Cress, M. E.; Poehlman, E.; Ades, P. A. (2002). Effects of resistance training on physical function in older disabled women with coronary heart disease. J Appl Physiol, 92(2), 672-678. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00804.2001

Byrne, C.; Faure, C.; Keene, D.; y Lamb, S. (2016). Ageing, Muscle Power and Physical Function: A Systematic Review and Implications for Pragmatic Training Interventions. Sports Med, 46(9), 1311-1332. doi: 10.1007/s40279-016-0489-x

Castañeda-Lechuga CH, Macias-Ruvalcaba S, Gallegos-Sánchez JJ, Villarreal-Angeles MA. (2020) Mejora de constructos físicos en adultos mayores de la zona norte de México. Retos 37, 258,263

Cress, M.; Buchner, D.; Questad, K.; Esselman, P.; deLateur, B.; y Schwartz, R. (1999). Exercise: effects on physical functional performance in independent older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 54(5), M242-248. doi.org/10.1093/gerona/54.5.M242

Cuoco, A.; Callahan, D.; Sayers, S.; Frontera, W.; Bean, J. y Fielding, R. (2004). Impact of Muscle Power and Force on Gait Speed in Disabled Older Men and Women. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 59(11), 1200-1206. doi: 10.1093/gerona/59.11.1200

de Vos, N.; Singh, N.; Ross, D.; Stavrinos, T.; Orr, R.; y Fiatarone Singh, M. (2005). Optimal Load for Increasing Muscle Power During Explosive Resistance Training in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 60(5), 638-647. doi: 10.1093/gerona/60.5.638

Earles, D.; Judge, J.; y Gunnarsson, O. (2001). Velocity training induces power-specific adaptations in highly functioning older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(7), 872-878. doi/10.1053/apmr.2001.23838

Enriquez-Reyna, M., Bautista, D., & Orocio, R. (2018). Nivel de actividad física, masa y fuerza muscular de mujeres mayores de la comunidad: Diferencias por grupo etario. Retos, 35, 121-125

Evans, W. (2000). Exercise strategies should be designed to increase muscle power. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 55(6), M309-310. doi.org/10.1093/gerona/55.6.M309

Faulkner, J.; Larkin, L.; Claflin, D.; y Brooks, S. (2007). Age-related changes in the structure and function of skeletal muscles Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007; 34(11):1091-6. doi/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04752.x

Fernandez, J; Hoyos, L. (2017) Relaciones entre diversas manifestaciones de la fuerza en diferentes gruposmusculares en adultos jóvenes. Rev. U.D.C.A Act. & Div. Cient. 20(1): 33-42.

Fielding, R.; LeBrasseur, N.; Cuoco, A.; Bean, J.; Mizer, K.; y Fiatarone Singh, M. (2002). High-velocity resistance training increases skeletal muscle peak power in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 50(4), 655-662.doi:/10.1046/j.1532- 5415.2002.50159.

Gonzalez-Badillo, J.; Rodriguez-Rosell, D.; Sanchez-Medina, L.; Gorostiaga, E.; y Pareja-Blanco, F. (2014). Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training. Eur J Sport Sci, 14(8), 772-781. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2014.905987

Gonzalez-Badillo, J.; y Sanchez-Medina, L. (2010). Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. Int J Sports Med, 31(5), 347-352. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1248333

Griffin, L.; y Cafarelli, E. (2005). Resistance Training: Cortical, Spinal, and Motor Unit Adaptations. Can J Appl Physiol., 30(3):328-40. doi:10.1139/h05-125

Hakkinen, K.; Kraemer, W.; Newton, R.; y Alen, M. (2001). Changes in electromyographic activity, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during heavy resistance/power strength training in middle-aged and older men and women. Acta Physiol Scand, 171(1), 51-62. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.2001.00781.x

Henwood, T.; Riek, S.; y Taaffe, D. (2008). Strength Versus Muscle Power-Specific Resistance Training in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 63(1), 83-91. doi: 10.1093/gerona/63.1.83

Hortobagyi, T.; Lesinski, M.; Gabler, M.; VanSwearingen, J.; Malatesta, D.; y Granacher, U. (2015). Effects of Three Types of Exercise Interventions on Healthy Old Adults' Gait Speed: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med, 45(12), 1627-1643. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0371-2

Izquierdo, M.; Hakkinen, K.; Gonzalez-Badillo, J.; Ibanez, J.; y Gorostiaga, E. (2002). Effects of long-term training specificity on maximal strength and power of the upper and lower extremities in athletes from different sports. Eur J Appl Physiol, 87(3), 264-271. doi: 10.1007/s00421-002-0628-y

Kent-Braun, J.; Callahan, D.; Fay, J.; Foulis, S.; y Buonaccorsi, J. (2014). Muscle weakness, fatigue, and torque variability: Effects of age and mobility status. Muscle Nerve, 49(2), 209-217. doi: 10.1002/mus.23903

Lowry, K.;Vallejo, A. y Studenski, S. (2012). Successful Aging as a Continuum of Functional Independence: Lessons from Physical Disability Models of Aging. Aging and Disease, 3(1), 5-15.

Manini, T.; y Clark, B. (2012). Dynapenia and aging: an update. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 67(1), 28-40. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glr010

McNeil, C.; Vandervoort, A.; y Rice, C. (2007). Peripheral impairments cause a progressive age-related loss of strength and velocity-dependent power in the dorsiflexors. J Appl Physiol,102(5): 1962-8 doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01166.2006

Merletti, R.; Farina, D.; Gazzoni, M.; y Schieroni, M. (2002). Effect of age on muscle functions investigated with surface electromyography. Muscle Nerve, 25(1), 65-76. doi:10.1002/mus.10014

Miszko, T.; Cress, M.; Slade, J.; Covey, C.; Agrawal, S. y Doerr, C. (2003). Effect of strength and power training on physical function in community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 58(2), 171-175. doi:10.1093/gerona/58.2.M171

Pereira, A.; Izquierdo, M.; Silva, A. J.; Costa, A. M.; Bastos, E.; Gonzalez-Badillo, J. y Marques, M. (2012). Effects of high-speed power training on functional capacity and muscle performance in older women. Exp Gerontol, 47(3), 250-255. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2011.12.010

Piasecki, M.; Ireland, A.; Coulson, J.; Stashuk, D. W.; Hamilton‐Wright, A.; Swiecicka, A.; Jones, D. (2016). Motor unit number estimates and neuromuscular transmission in the tibialis anterior of master athletes: evidence that athletic older people are not spared from age‐related motor unit remodeling. Physiological Reports, 4(19), e12987. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12987

Power, G.; Allen, M.; Gilmore, K.; Stashuk, D.; Doherty, T.; Hepple, R.; Rice, C. (2016). Motor unit number and transmission stability in octogenarian world class athletes: Can age-related deficits be outrun? Journal of Applied Physiology, 121(4), 1013-1020. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00149.2016

Power, G.; Dalton, B.; y Rice, C. (2013). Human neuromuscular structure and function in old age: A brief review. J Sport Health Sci, 2(4), 215-226. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2013.07.001

Prasitsiriphon, O y Pothisiri W. (2018) Associations of Grip Strength and Change in Grip Strength With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in a European Older Population. Clin Med Insights Cardiol.12: doi:1179546818771894.

Puthoff, M.; y Nielsen, D. (2007). Relationships among impairments in lower-extremity strength and power, functional limitations, and disability in older adults. Phys Ther, 87(10), 1334-1347. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20060176

Ramirez-Campillo, R.; Castillo, A.; De la Fuente, C.; Campos, C.; Andrade, D.; Álvarez, C.; Izquierdo, M. (2014). High-Speed Resistance Training is More Effective than Low-Speed Resistance Training to Increase Functional Capacity and Muscle Performance in Older Women. Exp Gerontol. 58:51-7. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2014.07.001 .

Ratamess, N.; Alvar, B.; Evetoch, T.; Housh, T.; Kibler, W.; y Kraemer, W. (2009). Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults [ACSM position stand]. Med Sci Sports 41:687-708. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670

Reid, K.; y Fielding, R. (2012). Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 40(1), 4-12. doi: 10.1097/JES.0b013e31823b5f13

Rikli, R.; y Jones, C. (2013). Development and validation of criterion-referenced clinically relevant fitness standards for maintaining physical independence in later years. Gerontologist, 53(2), 255-267. doi: 10.1093/geront/gns071

Sale, D. (1988). Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 20(5 Suppl), S135-145.

Sanchez-Medina, L.; Gonzalez-Badillo, J.; Perez, C.; y Pallares, J. (2014). Velocity- and power-load relationships of the bench pull vs. bench press exercises. Int J Sports Med, 35(3), 209-216. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1351252

Sanchez-Medina, L.; Perez, C.; y Gonzalez-Badillo, J. (2010). Importance of the propulsive phase in strength assessment. Int J Sports Med, 31(2), 123-129. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1242815

Sayers SP, Gibson K. High-speed power training in older adults: a shift of the external resistance at which peak power is produced. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(3):616-21.

Sayers, S.; Bean, J.; Cuoco, A.; LeBrasseur, N.; Jette, A.; y Fielding, R. (2003). Changes in function and disability after resistance training: does velocity matter?: a pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 82(8), 605-613. doi: 10.1097/01.phm.0000078225.71442.b6

Seo, D.; Lee, S.; Kim, N.; Ko, K.; Rhee, B.; y Han, J. (2016). Age-related changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria: the role of exercise. Integr Med Res, 5(3), 182-186. doi: 10.1016/j.imr.2016.07.003

Studenski, S.; Perera, S.; Wallace, D.; Chandler, J.; Duncan, P.; Rooney, E.; Guralnik, J. (2003). Physical performance measures in the clinical setting. J Am Geriatr Soc, 51(3), 314-322.

Publicado
2020-02-08
Cómo citar
Fernandez Ortega, J., & Hoyos Cuartas, L. (2020). Efectos de la velocidad de entrenamiento en fuerza sobre diversas manifestaciones de la fuerza en mujeres adultas mayores (Effect of the velocity resistance training on various manifestations of resistance in older women). Retos, 38(38), 325-332. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v38i38.73917
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas