Clima motivacional y niveles de ansiedad en futbolistas de categorías inferiores (Motivational climate and levels of anxiety in soccer players of lower divisions)

Manuel Castro-Sánchez, Félix Zurita-Ortega, Ramón Chacón-Cuberos, Antonio Miguel Lozano-Sánchez

Resumen


La motivación y la ansiedad representan factores psicológicos fundamentales en el contexto deportivo, por su estrecha relación con el rendimiento deportivo, por lo que la presente investigación tiene como objetivos describir los niveles de ansiedad y clima motivacional percibido de los deportistas estudiados, y analizar las diferencias entre el clima motivacional percibido y los niveles de ansiedad en una muestra de futbolistas de categorías inferiores, compuesta por un total de 154 jugadores de fútbol federados de entre 16 y 18 años de edad (16,96±.77), pertenecientes a las categorías División de Honor, Nacional, Preferente, Primera Provincial y Segunda Provincial. Los sujetos fueron evaluados mediante un cuestionario de Clima Motivacional (PMCQS-2) y el inventario de ansiedad (STAI). Los resultados indican que los futbolistas de categorías inferiores presentan niveles elevados de ansiedad-estado y ansiedad-rasgo; en cuanto al clima motivacional, los futbolistas analizados perciben en su mayoría un clima motivacional de implicación a la tarea. Los deportistas con una percepción motivacional de implicación a la tarea muestran niveles medios de ansiedad-estado, mientras que los sujetos con una menor percepción motivacional con implicación a la tarea tienen niveles de ansiedad alta. Resulta importante prestar atención a las asociaciones existentes entre el clima motivacional percibido y los niveles de ansiedad de los deportistas en la formación psicológica de los entrenadores de categorías inferiores de fútbol, promoviendo climas motivacionales orientados a la tarea e interviniendo mediante el uso de técnicas de relajación con el fin de disminuir los niveles de ansiedad. 


Abstract. Motivation and anxiety represent fundamental psychological factors in the sport context, due to its close relationship with sports performance. Thus, the objective of this research was to describe the levels of anxiety and motivational climate perceived by athletes, as well as to analyze the differences between the levels of motivation perceived and anxiety levels in 154 federated soccer players between 16 and 18 years of age (16.96 ± 0.77) from lower division (Honor Division, National, Preferred, First Provincial and Second Provincial). The subjects were evaluated through a Motivational Climate Questionnaire (PMCQS-2) and the anxiety inventory (STAI). The results indicate that soccer players degenerate in high levels of anxiety and state-anxiety. In terms of motivational climate, the players mostly perceive a motivational climate of involvement in the task. Athletes with a motivational perception of involvement demonstrated average levels of anxiety, while subjects with a lower motivational perception with involvement in the task were found with high levels of anxiety. It is important to pay attention to the existing associations between the perceived motivational climate and the levels of anxiety of athletes in the psychological training of the trainers in lower soccer divisions, promoting motivational climates oriented towards task and intervening through the use of relaxation techniques in order to decrease anxiety levels.

 


Palabras clave


Clima motivacional; ansiedad; fútbol; categorías inferiores; deporte ( Motivational climate; anxiety; football; inferior categories; sport)

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Referencias


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