This paper describes a pedagogical approach, Coding as Another language (CAL) to teach programming and computational thinking in early childhood. The CAL curriculum connects powerful ideas from the discipline of computer science with ideas from literacy in a way that is developmentally appropriate for children 4-8 years of age. CAL is free and can be used with two widely available programming environments for young children: the free on-screen ScratchJr app and the KIBO robotics kit that doesnt require keyboards or screens. Through 24 lessons centered on books, CAL emphasizes creative play and self-expression by positioning the learning of programming as the mastering of a new symbolic language. In addition, CAL provides opportunities for socio-emotional development in the context of a collaborative play-based learning environment, a coding playground, in which there is purposeful exploration of ethical and moral values and intentional promotion of positive behaviors and chrachter strenghs.
Albo-Canals, J., Barco, A., Relkin, E., Hannon, D., Heerink, M., Heinemann, M., Leidl, K., & Bers, M. (2018). A Pilot Study of the KIBO Robot in Children with Severe ASD. International Journal of Social Robotics, 10(3), 371-383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-018-0479-2
Bers, M. U. (2012). Designing Digital Experiences for Positive Youth Development: From Playpen to Playground. Routledge.
Bers, M. (2018). Coding as a Playground: Programming and Computational Thinking in the Early Childhood Classroom. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315398945
Bers, M. U. (2018). The Seymour test: Powerful ideas in early childhood education. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 14, 10-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcci.2017.06.004
Bers, M. U. (2019). Coding as another language: a pedagogical approach for teaching computer science in early childhood. Journal of Computers in Education, 6, 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-019-00147-3
Bers, M. U. (2019). Coding as another language In C. Donohue (Ed.), Exploring key issues in early childhood and technology: Evolving perspectives and innovative approaches (pp. 63–70). Routledge.
Bers, M. U. (2020). Coding as a playground: Computational thinking and programming in early childhood. Routledge.
Bers, M.U., Seddighin, S., & Sullivan, A. (2013). Ready for robotics: Bringing together the T and E of STEM in early childhood teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 21(3), 355-377.
Bruner, J. (1983). Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language. W. W. Norton & Company.
Chen, G. & Shen, J. & Barth-Cohen, L. & Jiang, S., Huang, X. & Eltoukhy, M. (2017). Assessing elementary students’ computational thinking in everyday reasoning and robotics programming. Computers & Education, 109, 162-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.03.001
Cheng, G. (2019). Exploring factors influencing the acceptance of visual programming environment among boys and girls in primary schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 361-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.043
Cunha, F. & James, H. (2007). The Technology of Skill Formation. American Economic Review, 97(2), 31-47.
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.
Elkin, M., Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2016). Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms. Computers in the Schools, 33(3), 169-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2016.1216251
Elkin, M., Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2018). Books, Butterflies, and ‘Bots: Integrating Engineering and Robotics into Early Childhood Curricula. In L. English and T. Moore (Eds.), Early Engineering Learning (pp. 225-248). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8621-2_11
Fedorenko, E., Ivanova, A., Dhamala, R., & Bers, M. U. (2019). The language of programming: A cognitive perspective. Trends in cognitive sciences, 23(7), 525-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2019.04.010
Google Inc. & Gallup Inc. (2016). Trends in the State of Computer Science in U.S. K-12 Schools. http://goo.gl/j291E0
Govind, M., Relkin, E., & Bers, M. U. (2020). Engaging Children and Parents to Code Together Using the ScratchJr App. Visitor Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/10645578.2020.1732184
Hassenfeld, Z. R., Govind, M., de Ruiter, L. E., & Bers, M. U. (2020). If You Can Program, You Can Write: Learning Introductory Programming Across Literacy Levels. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 19, 65-85. https://doi.org/10.28945/4509
Hassenfeld, Z. R., & Bers, M. U. (2020). Debugging the Writing Process: Lessons From a Comparison of Students’ Coding and Writing Practices. The Reading Teacher, 73(6), 735-746. https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1885
Kazakoff, E., & Bers, M. (2012). Programming in a robotics context in the kindergarten classroom: The impact on sequencing skills. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 21(4), 371-391.
Kazakoff, E.R. & Bers, M. U. (2014). Put your robot in, Put your robot out: Sequencing through programming robots in early childhood. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 50(4). https://doi.org/10.2190%2FEC.50.4.f
Karpiński, Z., Di Pietro, G., & Biagi, F. (2021). Computational thinking, socioeconomic gaps, and policy implications. IEA Compass: Briefs in Education Series (12). https://bit.ly/3wWbA2M
Lerner, R. (2007). The Good Teen. Three Rivers Press.
Lye, S. Y., & Koh, J. H. L. (2014). Review on teaching and learning of computational thinking through programming: What is next for K-12? Computers in Human Behavior, 41, 51– 61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.012
National Center for Women and Information Technology. (2020). NCWIT's women in IT: By the numbers. https://bit.ly/3rtp44S
Özyurt, Ö., & Özyurt, H. (2015). A study for determining computer programming students' attitudes towards programming and their programming self-efficacy. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 11(1), 51–67.
Pugnali, A., Sullivan, A., & Bers, M.U. (2017). The Impact of User Interface on Young Children’s Computational Thinking. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice, 16, 172-193.
Relkin, E. (2018). Assessing young children’s computational thinking abilities [Master’s tesis]. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 10813994)
Relkin, E. & Bers, M. U. (2019). Designing an Assessment of Computational Thinking Abilities for Young Children. In L.E. Cohen & S. Waite-Stupiansky (Eds.), STEM for Early Childhood Learners: How Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Strengthen Learning (pp. 85-98). Routledge.
Relkin, E., de Ruiter., L., & Bers, M.U. (2020). TechCheck: Development and Validation of an Unplugged Assessment of Computational Thinking in Early Childhood Education. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 29, 482–498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-020-09831-x
Relkin, E., de Ruiter, L.E., Bers, M.U. (2021). Learning to Code and the Acquisition of Computational Thinking by Young Children. Computers & Education, 169, 104222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104222
Resnick, M. (2006). Computer as Paintbrush: Technology, Play, and the Creative Society. In D. Singer, R. Golikoff, R. & K. Hirsh-Pasek (eds.), Play = Learning: How play motivates and enhances children's cognitive and social-emotional growth (pp. 1-16). Oxford University Press.
Resnick, M., & Siegel, D. (2015). A Different Approach to Coding. International Journal of People-Oriented Programming, 4(1), 1-4.
Resnick, M., & Rusk, N. (2020). Coding at a Crossroads, Communications of the ACM, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 120-127.
Resnick, M. (2017). Lifelong Kindergarten: Cultivating Creativity through Projects, Passions, Peers, and Play. MIT Press.
Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2017). Dancing robots: Integrating art, music, and robotics in Singapore's early childhood centers. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 28, 325-346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-017-9397-0
Sullivan, A. & Bers, M. U. (2016). Girls, boys, and bots: Gender differences in young children’s performance on robotics and programming tasks. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice, 15, 145-165.
Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2015). Robotics in the early childhood classroom: Learning outcomes from and 8-week robotics curriculum in pre-kindergarten through second grade. International Journal of Technology and Design Education 26, 3-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-015-9304-5
Sullivan, A., Bers, M.U., Mihm, C. (2017). Imagining, Playing, & Coding with KIBO: Using KIBO Robotics to Foster Computational Thinking in Young Children: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Thinking Education. Wanchai, Hong Kong.
Sullivan, A., Elkin, M., & Bers, M. U. (2015). KIBO Robot Demo: Engaging young children in programming and engineering: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC ’15), Medford, MA, June 21-25. ACM.
Strawhacker, A. and Bers, M. U. (2018). Promoting Positive Technological Development in a Kindergarten Makerspace: A Qualitative Case Study. European Journal of STEM Education, 3(3) 09. https://doi.org/10.20897/ejsteme/3869
Strawhacker, A., & Bers, M. U. (2019). What they learn when they learn coding: investigating cognitive domains and computer programming knowledge in young children. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(3), 541-575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-018-9622-x
Strawhacker, A., Sullivan, A., & Bers, M.U. (2013). TUI, GUI, HUI: Is a bimodal interface truly worth the sum of its parts?: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (IDC ’13) (pp. 309-312). ACM.
Tang, X., Yin, Y., Lin, Q., Hadad, R., & Zhai, X. (2020). Assessing computational thinking: a systematic review of empirical studies. Computers & Education, 148, 103798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103798.
Vee, A. (2017). Coding Literacy: How Computer Programming is Changing Writing. The MIT Press.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press.
Wing, J. (2006). Computational Thinking. CACM, 49(3), 33-36. https://doi.org/10.1145/1118178.1118215
Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. Harper Collins.
Zhang, L., & Nouri, J. (2019). A systematic review of learning computational thinking through Scratch in K-9. Computers & Education, 141, 103607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103607
Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0.
Derechos de autor 2021 Pixel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación