Aplicación del Protocolo de Mapeo de Intervención para promover el Transporte Activo a la Escuela en alumnos de primaria: la intervención ProATs (Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol to promote Active Transport to School in primary school students: the ProATs intervention)

Autores/as

  • Ana Corral-Abós Universidad de Zaragoza
  • Javier Zaragoza
  • Alberto Aibar
  • Eduardo Ibor
  • José Antonio Julián

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.92561

Resumen

El entorno escolar se presenta como un contexto ideal para las intervenciones que buscan cambios comportamentales. A su vez, los estudios muestran que las intervenciones desde el contexto escolar tienen un impacto positivo en los desplazamientos activos. Sin embargo, este tipo de intervenciones rara vez se desarrollan de forma sistemática. El objetivo de este manuscrito es describir el contenido y el proceso de desarrollo de la intervención ProATS (Promoting Active Transport to School). Para ello, se utiliza el Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP) para su diseño, implementación y evaluación. Esta intervención tiene como objetivo aumentar la frecuencia de desplazamiento activos en niños de 10 a 12 años. ProATS se basa en una revisión de la literatura y es desarrollado por un equipo multidisciplinar. Hay aportaciones de expertos (Grupo de Trabajo Local), representantes de las escuelas (Grupo de Planificación) y un facilitador en cada escuela (un miembro del equipo de investigación). La intervención de ProATs resulta en los siguientes dos componentes: (i) vía curricular, (ii) vía no curricular. Paralelamente, se elabora una guía que incluye las estrategias y actividades para diseñar e implementar ProATs. Los resultados del estudio piloto parecen prometedores, ya que muestran un aumento significativo en la frecuencia de los desplazamientos activos. El IMP, utilizado para promover los cambios de comportamiento como el desplazamiento activo al centro escolar, es un proceso complejo y que requiere de mucho tiempo. Sin embargo, ayudó a llevar a cabo la planificación y el desarrollo de la intervención de ProATs para que fuera fiable, eficaz y sostenible. La explicación del proceso con el IMP permite replicar la intervención en otros contextos escolares.

Abstract. The school setting is presented as an ideal context for behavioral interventions. Accordingly, evidence shows that school-based interventions positively impact on Active Transportation to School (ATS). However, behavioral interventions are rarely developed in a systematic way. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the content and development process of the ProATS (Promoting Active Transportation to School) intervention. For this purpose, an Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP) is used for the design, implementation, and evaluation of ProATS. This intervention aims to increase ATS in children aged 10 to 12 years is used. ProATS is based on a literature review and is developed by a multidisciplinary team. There is input from experts (Local Working Group), school representatives (Planning Committee), and a facilitator in each school (a member of the research team). The ProATs intervention results in the following two components (i) curricular path, (ii) non-curricular path. In parallel, a guide is elaborated, which includes the strategies and activities to design and implement the ProATs project. The results of the pilot study seem promising, showing a significant increase in ATS (i.e., the frequency of ATS). IMP, targeting behavioral changes such as ATS, is a complex and time-consuming process. Yet, it helped us to carry out the planning and development of the ProATs intervention to make it feasible, effective, and sustainable. The process explanation followed with the IMP allows replication of the intervention in other school contexts.

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Zaragoza, J., Corral, A., Ikeda, E., García-Bengoechea, E., & Aibar, A. (2020). Assessment of psychological, social cognitive and perceived environmental influences on children’s active transport to school. Journal of Transport and Health, 16(February), 100839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2020.100839

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2022-09-28

Cómo citar

Corral-Abós, A., Zaragoza, J. ., Aibar, A. ., Ibor, E. ., & Julián, J. A. . (2022). Aplicación del Protocolo de Mapeo de Intervención para promover el Transporte Activo a la Escuela en alumnos de primaria: la intervención ProATs (Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol to promote Active Transport to School in primary school students: the ProATs intervention). Retos, 46, 76–92. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.92561

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Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas