Efectos de 8 semanas de entrenamiento desestabilizador en superficies estables vs inestables sobre el resultado de los golpes en golfistas de élite (Effects of 8-weeks of stable vs unstable surface destabilizing training on shot outcome in elite golfers)


  • Manuel García Sillero
  • Constantino Peruzzi EADE-University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Málaga, Spain
  • Iván Chulvi-Medrano University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
  • Javier Peña Sport and Physical Activity Studies Centre (CEEAF), University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain
  • Manuel De Diego EADE-University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Málaga, Spain
  • Salvador Vargas Molina EADE-University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Málaga, Spain



Palabras clave:

Estabilidad, golf, trackman-golf, lumbopélvico, superficie inestable, superficie estable, (Stability, golf, trackman-golf, lumbopelvic, unstable surface, stable surface)


Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el efecto de dos programas de intervención que utilizan superficies estables o inestables sobre la velocidad y la distancia de golpeo en el golpeo/swing de golf. Métodos: Veinticinco golfistas de élite (19,20 ± 1,77 años, altura = 181,12 ± 4 cm, peso corporal = 75,35 ± 5,83; kg, IMC = 22,71 ± 1,76 kg.m2, hándicap: 2,49 ± 2,56) fueron asignados aleatoriamente a dos programas de entrenamiento diferentes de 8 semanas de duración basados en superficies inestables (n = 12) o en superficies estables (n = 13). Las mediciones de la distancia de golpeo y la velocidad de la cabeza del palo se realizaron con el sistema Trackman Golf®, ejecutando cada participante cinco swings y obteniendo la media y la mejor distancia. Resultados: No se encontraron cambios significativos (p< 0,05) en la velocidad de la cabeza del palo ni en la distancia de golpeo después de la intervención en el grupo de entrenamiento en superficie estable o en el de superficie inestable. Conclusiones: La intervención propuesta utilizando superficies de inestabilidad no aporta ningún beneficio adicional al entrenamiento en superficies estables en el rendimiento específico del golpe en golfistas de élite.

Abstract. Purpose: This research aimed to compare the effect of two intervention programs using stable or unstable surfaces on speed and hitting distance in golf stroke/swing. Methods: Twenty-five elite golfers (19.20 ± 1.77 years, height = 181.12 ± 4 cm, body mass = 75.35 ± 5.83; kg, BMI = 22.71 ± 1.76 kg.m2, handicap: 2.49 ± 2.56) were randomly assigned to two different 8-week training programs based on unstable surface (n = 12) or stable surface training (n=13). Measurements of carry distance and club head speed were performed using the Trackman Golf® system, with each participant executing five swings and obtaining the average and best distance. Results: No significant changes (p< 0.05) in the club head speed or carry distance were found after the intervention in the stable surface or the unstable surface training group. Conclusions: The proposed intervention using instability surfaces does not provide any additional benefit to training on stable surfaces in the specific performance of the stroke in elite golfers.


Alex Ehlert, M. (2020). The effects of strength and conditioning interventions on golf performance: A systematic review,. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38-23, 2720-2731. doi:DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1796470

Alvarez, M., Sedano, S., Cuadrado, G., & Redondo, J. C. (2012). Effects of an 18-week strength training program on low-handicap golfers' performance. J Strength Cond Res, 26(4), 1110-1121. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822dfa7d

Anderson, K., & Behm, D. G. (2005). Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements. Can J Appl Physiol, 30(1), 33-45. doi:10.1139/h05-103

Behm, D. G., & Anderson, K. G. (2006). The role of instability with resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 20(3), 716-722. doi:10.1519/R-18475.1

Behm, D. G., Colado, J. C., & Colado, J. C. (2013). Instability resistance training across the exercise continuum. Sports Health, 5(6), 500-503. doi:10.1177/1941738113477815

Behm, D. G., Drinkwater, E. J., Willardson, J. M., Cowley, P. M., & Canadian Society for Exercise, P. (2010). Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 35(1), 109-112. doi:10.1139/H09-128

Behm, D. G., Muehlbauer, T., Kibele, A., & Granacher, U. (2015). Effects of Strength Training Using Unstable Surfaces on Strength, Power and Balance Performance Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med, 45(12), 1645-1669. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0384-x

Brandon, B., & Pearce, P. Z. (2009). Training to prevent golf injury. Curr Sports Med Rep, 8(3), 142-146. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181a61c88

Busca, B., Aguilera-Castells, J., Arboix-Alio, J., Miro, A., Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A., & Pena, J. (2020). Influence of the Amount of Instability on the Leg Muscle Activity During a Loaded Free Barbell Half-Squat. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(21). doi:10.3390/ijerph17218046

Carrasco, M. (2016). Training Golf Specific (e. B. Fasesport Ed.).

Chulvi-Medrano, I., Garcia-Masso, X., Colado, J. C., Pablos, C., de Moraes, J. A., & Fuster, M. A. (2010). Deadlift muscle force and activation under stable and unstable conditions. J Strength Cond Res, 24(10), 2723-2730. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181f0a8b9

Coulombe, B. J., Games, K. E., Neil, E. R., & Eberman, L. E. (2017). Core Stability Exercise Versus General Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain. J Athl Train, 52(1), 71-72. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.11.16

Cressey, E. M., West, C. A., Tiberio, D. P., Kraemer, W. J., & Maresh, C. M. (2007). The effects of ten weeks of lower-body unstable surface training on markers of athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res, 21(2), 561-567. doi:10.1519/R-19845.1

Evans, K., & Tuttle, N. (2015). Improving performance in golf: current research and implications from a clinical perspective. Braz J Phys Ther, 19(5), 381-389. doi:10.1590/bjpt-rbf.2014.0122

Fletcher, I. M., & Hartwell, M. (2004). Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics training program on golf drive performance. J Strength Cond Res, 18(1), 59-62. doi:10.1519/1533-4287(2004)018<0059:eoawcw>2.0.co;2

Hellstrom, J. (2009). Competitive elite golf: a review of the relationships between playing results, technique and physique. Sports Med, 39(9), 723-741. doi:10.2165/11315200-000000000-00000

Hopkins, W. G., Marshall, S. W., Batterham, A. M., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(1), 3-13. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

Hume, P. A., Keogh, J., & Reid, D. (2005). The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots. Sports Med, 35(5), 429-449. doi:10.2165/00007256-200535050-00005

Kohler, J. M., Flanagan, S. P., & Whiting, W. C. (2010). Muscle activation patterns while lifting stable and unstable loads on stable and unstable surfaces. J Strength Cond Res, 24(2), 313-321. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c8655a

Lago-Fuentes, C., Rey, E., Padron-Cabo, A., Sal de Rellan-Guerra, A., Fragueiro-Rodriguez, A., & Garcia-Nunez, J. (2018). Effects of Core Strength Training Using Stable and Unstable Surfaces on Physical Fitness and Functional Performance in Professional Female Futsal Players. J Hum Kinet, 65, 213-224. doi:10.2478/hukin-2018-0029

Leadbetter, D. (1990). The Golf Swing. (L. Penguin Books Ed.).

McGill, S. M. (2001). Low back stability: from formal description to issues for performance and rehabilitation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 29(1), 26-31. doi:10.1097/00003677-200101000-00006

Nigg, B. M., Davis, E., Lindsay, D., & Emery, C. (2009). The effectiveness of an unstable sandal on low back pain and golf performance. Clin J Sport Med, 19(6), 464-470. doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181c0a96f

Norwood, J. T., Anderson, G. S., Gaetz, M. B., & Twist, P. W. (2007). Electromyographic activity of the trunk stabilizers during stable and unstable bench press. J Strength Cond Res, 21(2), 343-347. doi:10.1519/R-17435.1

Reed, C. A., Ford, K. R., Myer, G. D., & Hewett, T. E. (2012). The effects of isolated and integrated 'core stability' training on athletic performance measures: a systematic review. Sports Med, 42(8), 697-706. doi:10.2165/11633450-000000000-00000

Saeterbakken, A. H., & Fimland, M. S. (2013). Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. J Strength Cond Res, 27(1), 130-136. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182541d43

Sharrock, C., Cropper, J., Mostad, J., Johnson, M., & Malone, T. (2011). A pilot study of core stability and athletic performance: is there a relationship? Int J Sports Phys Ther, 6(2), 63-74. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21713228

Sung, D. J., Park, S. J., Kim, S., Kwon, M. S., & Lim, Y. T. (2016). Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance in elite golfers. J Sport Health Sci, 5(2), 219-225. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.12.006

Thompson, C. J., Cobb, K. M., & Blackwell, J. (2007). Functional training improves club head speed and functional fitness in older golfers. J Strength Cond Res, 21(1), 131-137. doi:10.1519/00124278-200702000-00024

Wahl, M. J., & Behm, D. G. (2008). Not all instability training devices enhance muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res, 22(4), 1360-1370. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318175ca3c

Waleska Reyes-Ferrada, Paula Plaza, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga, Luis Chirosa-Rios, & Peñailillo, L. (2021). Effects of slackline training on core endurance and dynamic balance. Retos, 41, 756-763.

Wells, G. D., Elmi, M., & Thomas, S. (2009). Physiological correlates of golf performance. J Strength Cond Res, 23(3), 741-750. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a07970

Wells, J., Mitchell, A., Charalambous, L., & Fletcher, I. (2018). Relationships between highly skilled golfers' clubhead velocity and force producing capabilities during vertical jumps and an isometric mid-thigh pull. J Sports Sci, 36(16), 1847-1851. doi:10.1080/02640414.2018.1423611

Weston, M., Coleman, N. J., & Spears, I. R. (2013). The effect of isolated core training on selected measures of golf swing performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 45(12), 2292-2297. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829bc7af

Willardson, J. M. (2007). Core stability training: applications to sports conditioning programs. J Strength Cond Res, 21(3), 979-985. doi:10.1519/R-20255.1

Yessenia Norambuena, Lorena Winkler, Rocío Guevara, Pamela Lavados, Manuel Monrroy, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, . . . Gajardo-Burgos, R. (2021). 5-week suspension training program increase physical performance of youth judokas: a pilot study. Retos, 39, 137-142.




Cómo citar

García Sillero, M., Peruzzi, C., Chulvi-Medrano, I., Peña, J., De Diego, M., & Vargas Molina, S. (2022). Efectos de 8 semanas de entrenamiento desestabilizador en superficies estables vs inestables sobre el resultado de los golpes en golfistas de élite (Effects of 8-weeks of stable vs unstable surface destabilizing training on shot outcome in elite golfers). Retos, 44, 756–762. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.91771



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a