Diferencias de género en la aproximación al cambio de dirección en tenistas profesionales (Gender differences in the approach to change of direction in professional tennis players)

  • Álvaro Durán
  • Rafael Martínez-Gallego Universidad de Valencia
  • Marc Gimeno
Palabras clave: Tenis, Cambio de dirección, Tracking, Velocidad, (Tennis, change of direction, tracking, speed)

Resumen

 

El objetivo de este estudio fue medir las velocidades de aproximación a los cambios de dirección (CDD), tras desplazamientos de más de 4 metros, entre hombres y mujeres en el fondo de la pista durante partidos de tenis de élite. Se seleccionó un partido de cada uno de los 5 mejores tenistas masculinos y femeninos del ranking ATP y WTA. Y, de cada partido, 15 CDD. Sobre cada CDD, se aplicó un sistema de seguimiento automático mediante videoanálisis basado en tres puntos corporales (cabeza, tronco y cadera). Se encontraron mayores velocidades en hombres en todos los momentos analizados a partir del penúltimo apoyo (PEN) antes del CDD. También se encontraron diferencias entre ambos sexos en las velocidades parciales durante los pasos previos al CDD. Durante aproximación al CDD, la velocidad de los hombres a partir del antepenúltimo apoyo (ANT) antes del CDD fue aumentada en el PEN y disminuyó en el último apoyo (ULT) antes del CDD, mientras que las mujeres, disminuyeron progresivamente su velocidad a partir del ANT. En conclusión, existen diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en la aproximación a un cambio de dirección, y por tanto en la preparación de golpeos. Por lo tanto, la información proporcionada en este estudio es de vital importancia para el planteamiento de entrenamientos. 

Abstract. The objective of this study was to measure and compare between genders, speeds of approach to the changes of direction (CDD), after displacements of more than 4 meters in the bottom of the court present in elite tennis. 15 CDDs were selected during a match, from each of the top 5 male and female tennis players in the ATP and WTA rankings. On them, an automatic monitoring system was applied by video analysis based on three body points (head, trunk and hip). Higher velocity values were found for men at all moments analyzed from the penultimate step (PEN) before CDD, as well as substantial differences between both genders in partial velocities during steps prior to CDD. During approach to the CDD, the speed of men from the third to last step before the CDD (ANT) was increased in the PEN and decreased in the last step before the CDD (ULT), while the women progressively decreased their speed from of the ANT. In conclusion, there are many differences between men and women when approaching a change of direction, and therefore in the preparation of blows. Therefore, the information provided in this study is of vital importance for the training approach by coaches and physical trainers.

Citas

Baiget, E., Iglesias, X., Fuentes, J. P., & Rodriguez, F. A. (2019). New Approaches for On-court Endurance Testing and Conditioning in Competitive Tennis Players. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 41(5), 9-16.

Barris, S., & Button, C. (2008). A review of vision-based motion analysis in sport. Sports Medicine, 38(12), 1025–1043.

Cooke, K., Quinn, A., & Sibte, N. (2011). Testing speed and agility in elite tennis players. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 33(4), 69-72.

Crespo, M. (2014). Las profesiones del mundo del tenis. E-coach. Revista Electrónica del Técnico de Tenis, 20, 6-14.

Cross, R. (2014). El tenis masculino vs. el tenis femenino. ITF Coaching and Sport Science Review, 22(62), 3–5.

Dos’Santos, T., Thomas, C., Jones, P. A., & Comfort, P. (2017). Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction Speed Performance in Male Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 696–705.

Dos’Santos, T., Thomas, C., Comfort, P., & Jones, P. A. (2018). The effect of angle and velocity on change of direction biomechanics: An angle-velocity trade-off. Sports medicine, 48(10), 2235-2253.

Ellenbecker, T.S., Pluim, B., Vivier, S. & Sniteman, C. (2009). Common injuries in tennis players: exercises to address muscular imbalances and reduce injury risk. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 31, 50-58.

Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Loturco, I., Pereira, L. A., Del Coso, J., Areces, F., Gallo-Salazar, C., & Sanz-Rivas, D. (2020). Change of Direction Performance in Young Tennis Players: A Comparative Study Between Sexes and Age Categories. Journal of strength and conditioning research. Ahead of print.

Galé-Ansodi, C. (2014). Youths tennis players ´ velocity and acceleration in match play. Revista Internacional de Los Deportes Colectivos, 18, 50–65.

Giles, B., Kovalchik, S., & Reid, M. (2020). A machine learning approach for automatic detection and classification of changes of direction from player tracking data in professional tennis. Journal of sports sciences, 38(1), 106-113.

International Tennis Federation. (2019). Global tennis report. Recuperado de: www.itftennis.com.

Kovacs, M., Chandler, W. B., & Chandler, T. J. (2007). Tennis training enhancing on-court performance. Racquet Tech Publishing. Vista, CA.

Kovacs, M. S., Roetert, E. P., & Ellenbecker, T. S. (2008). Efficient deceleration: The forgotten factor in tennis-specific training. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30(6), 58–69.

Kovacs, M. S. (2009). Movement for tennis: The importance of lateral training. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 31(4), 77–85.

Leone, M., Comtois, A. S., Tremblay, F., & Léger, L. (2006). Specificity of running speed and agility in competitive junior tennis players. Med Sci Tennis, 11, 10-11.

Martínez-Gallego, R., Guzmán, J. F., Crespo, M., Ramón-Llin, J., & Vučković, G. (2017). Technical, tactical and movement analysis of men's professional tennis on hard courts. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 59(1), 50-56.

Martínez-Gallego, R., Guzmán, J. F., James, N., Pers, J., Ramón-Llin, J., & Vuckovic, G. (2013). Movement characteristics of elite tennis players on hard courts with respect to the direction of ground strokes. Journal of sports science & medicine, 12(2), 275.

McLean, S. G., Lipfert, S. W., & Van Den Bogert, A. J. (2004). Effect of gender and defensive opponent on the biomechanics of sidestep cutting. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(6), 1008–1016.

París, C. L. (2000). Influencia del sexo en la práctica deportiva. Biología de la mujer

deportista. Arbor, 165(650), 249–263.

Penalva, F., Guzmán, J. F., Martínez-Gallego, R., & Crespo, M. (2021). Design and validation of a tennis tool to control on-court technical and tactical training content. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 17479541211027428.

Reid, M., Quinn, A., & Crespo, M. (2003). Fuerza y condición física para el tenis. ITF Ltd. Londres.

Rodríguez, A. C. (2012). El pádel de competición. Análisis de las respuestas fisiológicas, físicas y psicológicas (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad de Málaga).

Sanz, D. y Andrade, J. C. (2008). Entrenamiento del juego ofensivo para jugadores de competición. E-Coach, 2, 1-4.

Sheppard, J. M., & Young, W. B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing. Journal of sports sciences, 24(9), 919-932.

Sigward, S. M., Cesar, G. M., & Havens, K. L. (2015). Predictors of frontal plane knee moments during side-step cutting to 45 and 110 degrees in men and women: Implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25(6), 529–534.

Spiteri, T., Hart, N. H., & Nimphius, S. (2014). Offensive and defensive agility: A sex comparison of lower body kinematics and ground reaction forces. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 30(4), 514–520.

Ulbricht, A., Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Mendez-Villanueva, A., & Ferrauti, A. (2016). Impact of fitness characteristics on tennis performance in elite junior tennis players. The journal of strength & conditioning research, 30(4), 989-998.

Wojtys, E. M., Huston, L. J., Taylor, P. D., & Bastian, S. D. (1996). Neuromuscular adaptations in isokinetic, isotonic, and agility training programs. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 24(2), 187–192.

Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Durán, Álvaro, Martínez-Gallego, R., & Gimeno, M. (2022). Diferencias de género en la aproximación al cambio de dirección en tenistas profesionales (Gender differences in the approach to change of direction in professional tennis players). Retos, 43, 938-943. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.88803
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas