Efectos agudos de distintas estrategias de calentamiento sobre el rendimiento físico y las habilidades motrices en escolares (Acute effects of different warm-up strategies on physical performance and motor skills in schoolchildren)

  • Nicolás Gómez-Álvarez Grupo de Estudio AFSYE, Universidad Adventista de Chile
  • Alexander Schweppe-Villa Universidad Adventista de Chile
  • Aarón Parra-Gatica
  • Falú Cid-Rojas
  • Gustavo Pavez-Adasme Grupo de Estudio AFSYE, Universidad Adventista de Chile https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4377-384X
  • Felipe Hermosilla-Palma Universidad Autónoma de Chile (Talca)
Palabras clave: educación física, competencia motriz, aprendizaje motor, calidad de movimiento, desarrollo motor, rendimiento motor, rendimiento físico, carrera, (physical education, motor competence, motor learning, motor performance, physical performance)

Resumen

 

El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar los efectos de distintos tipos de calentamientos aplicados en escolares sobre la calidad de movimiento de las habilidades motrices y el rendimiento de salto y carrera. La metodología utilizada fue a partir de un diseño estudio cruzado aleatorizado (n=27 escolares), que incluyó tres condiciones experimentales para valorar el efecto agudo de distintos tipos de calentamiento (tradicional, basado en juegos adaptados reducidos y FIFA 11+) sobre el salto vertical, sprint en 20 metros y habilidades motoras de locomoción y control de objetos en niños y niñas. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y comparativa a través de ANOVA de medidas repetidas y Friedman con sus pruebas post-hoc según corresponda. Los resultados muestran que todos los tipos de calentamiento mostraron diferencias significativas en sprint, salto vertical y habilidades motoras, respecto al a la condición control sin calentamiento. El calentamiento basado en juegos adaptados reducidos presentó efectos superiores que las otras modalidades en las habilidades motoras de locomoción (p< .05). Las comparaciones entre calentamientos mostraron que la intervención basada en FIFA 11+ mostró ser más eficaz en reducir el tiempo de sprint en 20 metros y aumentar la altura del salto vertical (p< .05). En conclusión, este estudio sugiere que, la selección de una estrategia adecuada basada en una diversidad de experiencias motrices como las ofrecidas por los protocolos de calentamiento FIFA11+ y de juegos adaptados reducidos podría ser clave para mejorar el rendimiento motor y la magnitud de los beneficios asociados al calentamiento. 

Abstract: The objective of this research is to assess the effects of different types of warm-ups applied in schoolchildren on the quality of movement of motor skills and jumping and sprint performance. The methodology used was based on a randomized crossover study design (n = 27 schoolchildren), which included three experimental conditions to assess the acute effect of different types of warm-up (traditional, based on reduced adapted games and FIFA 11+) on the vertical jump, sprint in 20 meters and motor skills of locomotion and control of objects in children. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used through repeated measures ANOVA and Friedman with its post-hoc tests as appropriate. The results show that all types of warm-up showed significant differences in sprint, vertical jump and motor skills, compared to the control condition without warm-up. The warm-up based on reduced adapted games presented greater effects than the other modalities on the motor skills of locomotion (p <.05). Comparisons between warm-ups showed that the intervention based on FIFA 11+ was shown to be more effective in reducing sprint time by 20 meters and increasing vertical jump height (p <.05).  In conclusion, this study suggests that the selection of an appropriate strategy based on a diversity of motor experiences such as those offered by the FIFA11 + warm-up protocols and reduced adapted games could be key to improving motor performance and the magnitude of the benefits associated with warm-up.

Citas

Aguilar-Farias, N., Martino-Fuentealba, P., Carcamo-Oyarzun, J., Cortinez-O’Ryan, A., Cristi-Montero, C., Von Oetinger, A., & Sadarangani, K. P. (2018). A regional vision of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and physical education in adolescents from Latin America and the Caribbean: results from 26 countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(3), 976–986. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy033

Ajemian, R., D’Ausilio, A., Moorman, H., & Bizzi, E. (2010). Why professional athletes need a prolonged period of warm-up and other peculiarities of human motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 42(6), 381–388. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2010.528262

Alibazi, R., Pearce, A., Rostami, M., Frazer, A., Brownstein, C., & Kidgell, D. (2021). Determining the Intracortical Responses After a Single Session of Aerobic Exercise in Young Healthy Individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 35(2), 562–575. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000003884

Arribas-Galarraga, S., Luis-de Cos, I., Luis-de Cos, G., & Urrutia-Gutierrez, S. (2020). Mediation Effect of Perceived Fitness on the Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Sport Practice in Spanish Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23), 8800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238800

Asociación Médica Mundial. (1964). Declaración de Helsinki de la AMM - Principios éticos para las investigaciones médicas en seres humanos.

Baños, R., Fuentesal, J., Conte, L., Ortiz-Camacho, M. del M., & Zamarripa, J. (2020). Satisfaction, Enjoyment and Boredom with Physical Education as Mediator between Autonomy Support and Academic Performance in Physical Education. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23), 8898. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238898

Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., Carty, C., Chaput, J. P., Chastin, S., Chou, R., Dempsey, P. C., DiPietro, L., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Friedenreich, C. M., Garcia, L., Gichu, M., Jago, R., Katzmarzyk, P. T., … Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(24), 1451–1462. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955

Cano-Cappellacci, M., Leyton, F. A., & Carreño, J. D. (2015). Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children. Revista de Saude Publica, 49(97). https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910.2015049005724

Carrasco Beltrán, H., Reigal Garrido, R. E., Ulloa Díaz, D., Jesús Chirosa Ríos, I., & Chirosa Ríos, L. J. (2015). Efecto de los juegos reducidos en la composición corporal y la condición física aeróbica en un grupo de adolescentes escolares. Revista Medica de Chile, 143(6), 744–750. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872015000600007

Chang, N.-J., Tsai, I.-H., Lee, C.-L., & Liang, C.-H. (2020). Effect of a Six-Week Core Conditioning as a Warm-Up Exercise in Physical Education Classes on Physical Fitness, Movement Capability, and Balance in School-Aged Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 5517. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155517

Chatzopoulos, D., Galazoulas, C., Patikas, D., & Kotzamanidis, C. (2014). Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on balance, agility, reaction time and movement time. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 13(2), 403–409. http://www.jssm.org

Coker, C. A. (2018). Improving Functional Movement Proficiency in Middle School Physical Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 89(3), 367–372. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1484066

Coledam, D. H. C., Paludo, A. C., De Oliveira, A. R., & Dos-Santos, J. W. (2012). Dynamic exercise versus tag game warm up: The acute effect on agility and vertical jump in children. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 7(1), 243–253. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.71.03

Cornish, K., Fox, G., Fyfe, T., Koopmans, E., Pousette, A., & Pelletier, C. A. (2020). Understanding physical literacy in the context of health: a rapid scoping review. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1569. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09583-8

Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Brymer, E. (2016). Designing Affordances for Health-Enhancing Physical Activity and Exercise in Sedentary Individuals. Sports Medicine, 46(7), 933–938. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0511-3

Delextrat, A., Esser, P., Beale, N., Bozon, F., Eldridge, E., Izadi, H., Johansen-Berg, H., Wheatley, C., & Dawes, H. (2020). Effects of gender, activity type, class location and class composition on physical activity levels experienced during physical education classes in British secondary schools: a pilot cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 20(1590). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09698-y

Díaz-Soler, M., Vaquero-Cristóbal, R., Espejo-Antúnez, L., & López-Miñarro, P. (2015). The effect of a warm-up protocol on the sit-and-reach test score in adolescent students. Nutr Hosp, 31(6), 2618–2623. https://doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.31.6.8858

Emery, C. A., Van Den Berg, C., Richmond, S. A., Palacios-Derflingher, L., McKay, C. D., Doyle-Baker, P. K., McKinlay, M., Toomey, C. M., Nettel-Aguirre, A., Verhagen, E., Belton, K., MacPherson, A., & Hagel, B. E. (2020). Implementing a junior high school-based programme to reduce sports injuries through neuromuscular training (iSPRINT): A cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(15), 913–919. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101117

Engel, A. C., Broderick, C. R., van Doorn, N., Hardy, L. L., & Parmenter, B. J. (2018). Exploring the Relationship Between Fundamental Motor Skill Interventions and Physical Activity Levels in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(8), 1845–1857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0923-3

Engels, E. S., & Freund, P. A. (2020). Effects of cooperative games on enjoyment in physical education—How to increase positive experiences in students? PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0243608. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243608

FIFA 11+ for kids manual a warm-up programme for preventing injuries in children’s football. (2016). https://www.fifamedicalnetwork.com/wp-content/uploads/cdn/fifa11plus_kids_booklet.pdf

Font-Lladó, R., López-Ros, V., Montalvo, A. M., Sinclair, G., Prats-Puig, A., & Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A. (2020). A Pedagogical Approach to Integrative Neuromuscular Training to Improve Motor Competence in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trail. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 34(11), 3078–3085. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003772

Fradkin, A. J., Zazryn, T. R., & Smoliga, J. M. (2010). Effects of warming-up on physical performance: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 140–148. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c643a0

Fraile, J., Tejero-González, C., Esteban-Cornejo, I., & Veiga, Ó. (2019). Asociación entre disfrute, autoeficacia motriz, actividad física y rendimiento académico en educación física (Association between enjoyment, motor self-efficacy, physical activity and academic performance in physical education). Retos, 36(36), 58–63. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v36i36.63035

Frikha, M., Derbel, M. S., Chaâri, N., Gharbi, A., & Chamari, K. (2017). Acute effect of stretching modalities on global coordination and kicking accuracy in 12–13 year-old soccer players. Human Movement Science, 54, 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2017.03.008

Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., & Richler, J. J. (2012). Effect size estimates: Current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024338

García-Hermoso, A., Alonso-Martínez, A. M., Ramírez-Vélez, R., Pérez-Sousa, M. Á., Ramírez-Campillo, R., & Izquierdo, M. (2020). Association of Physical Education with Improvement of Health-Related Physical Fitness Outcomes and Fundamental Motor Skills among Youths: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 174(6), e200223–e200223. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0223

García, F., Herazo, Y., Sánchez, L., Barbosa, E., Coronado, A., Corro, E., Villarreal, A., & Redondo, C. (2020). Autoeficacia hacia la actividad física en escolares colombianos (Self-efficacy towards physical activity in Colombian schoolchildren). Retos, 38(38), 390–395. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v38i38.73878

Garrigós, Durán, Á., & Sánchez-Pay, A. (2020). Influencia de dos tipos de calentamiento sobre la fuerza explosiva del tren inferior en estudiantes de Educación Física. Pensar En Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias Del Ejercicio y La Salud, 18(1), e34705. https://doi.org/10.15517/pensarmov.v18i1.34705

Gelen, E. (2011). Acute effects of different warm-up methods on jump performance in children. Biology of Sport, 28(2), 133–138. https://doi.org/10.5604/947456

Gómez-Álvarez, N., Moyano, F., Huichaqueo, E., Veruggio, M., Urrutia, V., Hermosilla-Palma, F., & Pavez-Adasme, G. (2020). Effects of the inclusion of jump exercises with and without external overload in the warm-up on physical performance parameters in young handball athletes. MHSalud, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.15359/mhs.17-1.4

Guthold, R., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., & Bull, F. C. (2020). Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1·6 million participants. The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 4(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30323-2

Hollis, J. L., Sutherland, R., Williams, A. J., Campbell, E., Nathan, N., Wolfenden, L., Morgan, P. J., Lubans, D. R., Gillham, K., & Wiggers, J. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in secondary school physical education lessons. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 52. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0504-0

Iacono, A., Vigotsky, A., Laver, L., & Halperin, I. (2019). Beneficial Effects of Small-Sided Games as a Conclusive Part of Warm-up Routines in Young Elite Handball Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Kar, S., & Banerjee, A. (2013). Influence of Active & Passive Warming Up On Motor Performance of the Athletes. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS, 10(6), 21. www.Iosrjournals.Org

Lakicevic, N., Gentile, A., Mehrabi, S., Cassar, S., Parker, K., Roklicer, R., Bianco, A., & Drid, P. (2020). Make Fitness Fun: Could Novelty Be the Key Determinant for Physical Activity Adherence? Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 577522. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.577522

McGowan, C. J., Pyne, D. B., Thompson, K. G., & Rattray, B. (2015). Warm-Up Strategies for Sport and Exercise: Mechanisms and Applications. Sports Medicine, 45(11), 1523–1546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0376-x

Pavez-Adasme, G., Hernández-Mosqueira, C., Torres, S., Paillacar, M., Concha, M., Cabrera, M., Concha, M., & Gómez-Álvarez, N. (2020). Test de desarrollo motor aplicados en Chile entre el período 2014-2018. Una revisión sistemática | Ciencias de la Actividad Física UCM. Revista Ciencias de La Actividad Física UCM , 21(1), 1–11. http://revistacaf.ucm.cl/article/view/366

Pueo, B., Penichet-Tomas, A., & Jimenez-Olmedo, J. (2020). Reliability and validity of the Chronojump open-source jump mat system. Biology of Sport, 37(3), 255–259. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2020.95636

Rey, E., Carballo-Fazanes, A., Varela-Casal, C., & Abelairas-Gómez, C. (2020). Reliability of the test of gross motor development: A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 15(7 July). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236070

Reyes, A., Rivas, J., & Pavez-Adasme, G. (2020). Tiempo de compromiso motor en la clase de educación física. Voces De La Educación, 5(10), 90–113. https://www.revista.vocesdelaeducacion.com.mx/index.php/voces/article/view/256/213

Rössler, R., Donath, L., Bizzini, M., & Faude, O. (2016). A new injury prevention programme for children’s football – FIFA 11+ Kids – can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(6), 549–556. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1099715

Rudd, J. R., Pesce, C., Strafford, B. W., & Davids, K. (2020). Physical Literacy - A Journey of Individual Enrichment: An Ecological Dynamics Rationale for Enhancing Performance and Physical Activity in All. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(1904). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01904

Stamatakis, E., & Bull, F. C. (2020). Putting physical activity in the “must-do” list of the global agenda. Br J Sports Med, 54(24). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103509

The jamovi project. (2021). Jamovi Stats (version1.6) [Computer Softwear] (1.6). https://www.jamovi.org.

Ulrich, D. A., & Sanford, C. B. (2000). Test of gross motor development (2nd ed). Pro-ed Austin, TX.

Vleugels, L. W. E., Swinnen, S. P., & Hardwick, R. M. (2020). Skill acquisition is enhanced by reducing trial-to-trial repetition. Journal of Neurophysiology, 123(4), 1460–1471. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00741.2019

Wernbom, M., Augustsson, J., & Thomeé, R. (2007). The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans. Sports Medicine, 37(3), 225–264. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737030-00004

Wing, E. K., Bélanger, M., & Brunet, J. (2016). Linking parental influences and youth participation in physical activity in- and out-of-school: The mediating role of self-efficacy and enjoyment. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40(1), 31–37. https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.40.1.4

World Health Organization. (2020). Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015128

Zois, J., Bishop, D. J., Ball, K., & Aughey, R. J. (2011). High-intensity warm-ups elicit superior performance to a current soccer warm-up routine. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(6), 522–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.03.012

Publicado
2021-09-25
Cómo citar
Gómez-Álvarez, N., Schweppe-Villa, A., Parra-Gatica, A., Cid-Rojas, F., Pavez-Adasme, G., & Hermosilla-Palma, F. (2021). Efectos agudos de distintas estrategias de calentamiento sobre el rendimiento físico y las habilidades motrices en escolares (Acute effects of different warm-up strategies on physical performance and motor skills in schoolchildren). Retos, 42, 18-26. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.86525
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas