Factores predictores de la actividad física en escolares españoles de acuerdo a su estado de peso (Predictive factors of physical activity in Spanish students based on their weight status)

Alejandro Martinez-Baena, Daniel Mayorga-Vega, Jesús Viciana

Resumen


El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar la motivación autodeterminada hacia el ejercicio físico, autoconcepto físico, barreras hacia la actividad física e intención de ser físicamente activo entre adolescentes con y sin sobrepeso/obesidad. Una muestra de 333 escolares, de 13 a 16 años, participaron en esta investigación. Para la medición de las distintas variables se utilizaron instrumentos validados: Índice de masa corporal, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, Physical Self Description Questionnaire, Autoinforme de Barreras para la Práctica de Ejercicio Físico e Intention to Be Physically Active Questionnaire. Los resultados mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas de acuerdo al índice de masa corporal (sobrepeso/obesidad) en todas las variables analizadas tanto en chicos como en chicas (p < 0,05), excepto en la intención de ser físicamente activo. La comprensión de los factores predictores o determinantes de la actividad física analizados, resulta relevante por ser estos potencialmente modificables. Por tanto, adaptar programas de intervención orientados a promocionar actividad física a las evidencias encontradas ayudaría a aumentar los índices de participación activa en escolares, especialmente en aquellos con sobrepeso u obesidad.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare self-determined motivation towards exercise, physical self-concept, barriers towards physical activity, and intention to be physically active among adolescents with and without overweight/obesity. A sample of 333 schoolchildren aged 13 to 16 years old participated in this research study. Validated instruments were used for the measurement of the variables included in the study: Body Mass Index, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, Physical Self Description Questionnaire, Self-report of Barriers towards the Practice of Exercise, and Intention to Be Physically Active Questionnaire. The results showed statistically significant differences by body mass index (overweight/obesity) in all analyzed variables in both boys and girls (p < 0.05), except for the intention to be physically active. Understanding the analyzed predictive factors or determinants of physical activity is essential because they are potentially modifiable. Therefore, using the evidences found in our study to adapt physical activity promotion intervention programs would help increasing the rates of active participation in schoolchildren, especially those who are overweight or obese.


Palabras clave


Factores predictores, actividad física, adolescentes, masa corporal, escuela ( Predictive factors, physical activity, adolescents, body mass, school)

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Referencias


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