Estudio de estilos de juego en la primera división de fútbol española antes, durante y después del Covid-19 (Study of playing styles in the spanish first division of football before, during and after covid-19)

Autores/as

  • José A. Fernández-Cortés Grupo de Optimización del Entrenamiento y Rendimiento (GOERD), Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8643-8331
  • David Mancha Triguero CEU San Pablo Andalucía https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8080-7565
  • Javier García-Rubio Grupo de Optimización del Entrenamiento y Rendimiento (GOERD), Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6426-0002
  • Sergio J. Ibáñez Grupo de Optimización del Entrenamiento y Rendimiento (GOERD), Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.103414

Palabras clave:

Análisis Notacional, Estilo de Juego, Árbol de Clasificación, Indicadores de Rendimiento

Resumen

Debido al impacto negativo a nivel mundial en el deporte provocado por el COVID-19. El objetivo fue analizar la influencia de la pandemia en los estilos de juego, medida a través de la interacción de indicadores de juego, para comprobar la existencia del efecto local en tres momentos diferentes en la primera liga profesional española. Para ello se analizaron 5.320 casos (2.660 partidos) desde la temporada 2014/2015 a la 2020/2021 de LaLiga. Todas las temporadas se desarrollaron con normalidad excepto la temporada 2019/2020, que experimentó una pausa de tres meses de inactividad debido a la pandemia. Durante la temporada 2020/2021 los partidos comenzaron sin espectadores o con un número limitado de aficionados para mantener la distancia social permitida. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y árboles de clasificación mediante la técnica CRT para identificar estilos de juego. Los resultados mostraron una simplificación del juego a lo largo de las temporadas. Los equipos visitantes se adaptaron mejor a estilos de juego más efectivos para lograr mejores resultados. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a cambios de reglas, la ausencia total/parcial de espectadores, un período de inactividad de tres meses y la acumulación de partidos en un corto período de tiempo. Los equipos deben tener en cuenta las diferentes situaciones analizadas para mostrar un estilo de juego eficaz para lograr sus diferentes objetivos.

Palabras Claves: Análisis Notacional, Estilos de Juego, Árbol de Clasificación, Indicadores de Rendimiento.

Abstract. Due to the worldwide negative impact on sports caused by the COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the influence of the pandemic on playing styles, measured through the interaction of game indicators, to verify the existence of the home advantage effect at three different time points in the Spanish top professional league. To achieve this, 5320 cases (2660 matches) from the 2014/2015 season to 2020/2021of LaLiga were analyzed. All seasons unfolded normally except for the 2019/2020 season, which experienced a three-month hiatus of inactivity due to the pandemic. During the 2020/2021 season, matches began without spectators or with a limited number of fans to maintain the allowed social distance. A descriptive analysis and classification trees using the CRT technique were performed to identify playing styles. The results showed a simplification of the game throughout the seasons. Visiting teams adapted better to more effective playing styles to achieve better results. These differences may be attributed to rule changes, the total/partial absence of spectators, a three-month inactivity period, and the accumulation of matches in a short period of time. Teams should take into account the different situations analyzed in order to display an effective playing style to achieve their different objectives.

Keywords: Notational Analysis; Playing style; Classification tree; Performance indicators.

 

Citas

Almeida, C. H., & Leite, W. S. (2021). Professional football in times of COVID-19: did the home advantage effect disappear in European domestic leagues? Biology of Sport, 38(4), 693-701. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2021.104920

Arboix-Alio, J., Trabal, G., Busca, B., Pena, J., Arboix, A., & Hileno, R. (2022). The Behaviour of Home Advantage during the COVID-19 Pandemic in European Rink Hockey Leagues. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 228-238. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010228

Benz, L. S., & López, M. J. (2021). Estimating the change in soccer's home advantage during the Covid-19 pandemic using bivariate Poisson regression. Asta-Advances in Statistical Analysis, 107(1-2), 205-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10182-021-00413-9

Bilalic, M., Gula, B., & Vaci, N. (2021). Home advantage mediated (HAM) by referee bias and team performance during covid. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 21558. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00784-8

Breiman, L. (2017). Classification and regression trees. Routledge.

Breiman, L., Friedman, J., Olshen, R., & Stone, C. (1984). Cart. Classification and regression trees.

Chiu, Y.-C., & Chang, C.-K. (2022). Major League Baseball during the COVID-19 pandemic: does a lack of spectators affect home advantage? Humanities Social Sciences Communications, 9(1), 1-6.

Couto, B. P., & Sayers, M. G. L. (2022). Crowd social pressure in the Brazilian soccer league: testing home advantage and referees' bias during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-16 https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2022.2084763

Cross, J., & Uhrig, R. (2023). Do Fans Impact Sports Outcomes? A COVID-19 Natural Experiment. Journal of Sports Economics, 24(1), 3-27, https://doi.org/10.1177/15270025221100204

De Angelis, L., & Reade, J. J. (2022). Home advantage and mispricing in indoor sports' ghost games: the case of European basketball. Annals of Operations Research, 1-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-022-04950-7

Ehrlich, J., & Potter, J. (2022). Estimating the effect of attendance on home advantage in the National Basketball Association. Applied Economics Letters, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2022.2061898

Fernández-Cortés, J., Gómez-Ruano, M. A., Mancha-Triguero, D., Ibáñez, S. J., & García-Rubio, J. (2022). Evolution of Performance Indicators in Soccer during the Last Decade. Applied Sciences, 12(24), 12834-12851.

FIFA. (2022). International Football Association Board. Reglas de juego 22/23.

Fischer, K., & Haucap, J. (2021). Does Crowd Support Drive the Home Advantage in Professional Football? Evidence from German Ghost Games during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Sports Economics, 22(8), 982-1008. https://doi.org/10.1177/15270025211026552

García-Rubio, J., Gómez-Ruano, M. A., Cañadas-Alonso, M., & Ibáñez, S. J. (2015). Offensive Rating-Time coordination dynamics in basketball. Complex systems theory applied to Basketball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15(2), 513-526. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2015.11868810

García-Rubio, J., Sáez-Blázquez, J., Ibáñez, S. J., Parejo, I., & Cañadas-Alonso, M. (2009). Home advantage analysis in ACB league in season 2007-2008. 18(3), 331-335.

Gershgoren, L., Levental, O., & Basevitch, I. (2022). Home Advantage Perceptions in Elite Handball: A Comparison Among Fans, Athletes, Coaches, and Officials. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 782129. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.782129

Gómez-Ruano, M. A., Ibáñez, S. J., Parejo, I., & Furley, P. (2017). The use of classification and regression tree when classifying winning and losing basketball teams. Kinesiology, 49(1), 47-56.

Hill, Y., & Van Yperen, N. W. (2021). Losing the Home Field Advantage When Playing Behind Closed Doors During COVID-19: Change or Chance?. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.658452

Hughes, M., Franks, I. M., Franks, I. M., & Dancs, H. (2019). Essentials of Performance Analysis in Sport. Routledge.

Jiménez-Sánchez, Á., Lavín, J. M., & Endara, F. (2021). Repercusiones de jugar sin público en la ventaja local, las decisiones arbitrales y en los componentes del juego. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 21(2), 198-212.

Krumer, A., & Smith, V. A. O. (2022). The Effect of COVID-19 on Home Advantage in Women's Soccer: Evidence From Swedish Damallsvenskan. American Behavioral Scientist, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/00027642221118259

Lago-Peñas, C., & Dellal, A. (2010). Ball possession strategies in elite soccer according to the evolution of the match-score: the influence of situational variables. Journal of Human Kinetics, 25, 93-100.

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). Measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159-174. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529310

Leitner, M. C., & Richlan, F. (2021). No Fans-No Pressure: Referees in Professional Football During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3, 720488. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.720488

Liu, T., García-De-Alcaraz, A., Zhang, L., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Exploring home advantage and quality of opposition interactions in the Chinese Football Super League. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 19(3), 289-301. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2019.1600907

Macedo-Rego, R. C. (2022). The effect of crowd support: home advantage in football is reduced during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Behaviour, 159(10), 941-959. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-bja10159

Martins, H. S. R., Duarte, A. R., Barbosa, J. J., & Souza, G. L. (2022). Home team's advantage reduced without crowd support after the COVID-19 outbreak. Soccer & Society, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2022.2088526

Matos, R., Monteiro, D., Antunes, R., Mendes, D., Botas, J., Clemente, J., & Amaro, N. (2021). Home-Advantage during COVID-19: An Analysis in Portuguese Football League. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073761

McCarrick, D., Bilalic, M., Neave, N., & Wolfson, S. (2021). Home advantage during the COVID-19 pandemic: Analyses of European football leagues. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 56, 102013.

Midgley, A., & Chrismas, B. (2014). Analysis of quantitative data. In Routledge (Ed.), Research Methods in Sports Coaching, 132-146.

Montero, I., & Leon, O. G. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in Psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847-862.

Pollard, R., & Pollard, G. (2005). Home advantage in soccer: A review of its existence and causes. International Journal of Soccer and Science Journal, 3(1), 28-44

Rampinini, E., Impellizzeri, F. M., Castagna, C., Abt, G., Chamari, K., Sassi, A., & Marcora, S. (2007). Factors influencing physiological responses to small-sided soccer games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(6), 659-666.

Ribeiro, L. d. C., Fonseca, F. d. S., Teixeira Costa, G. D. C., Castro, H. d. O., Victor da Silva Santos, J. P., & Figueiredo, L. S. (2022). Did the Absence of Crowd Support During the Covid-19 Pandemic Affect the Home Advantage in Brazilian Elite Soccer?. Journal of Human Kinetics, 81(1), 251-258. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2022-0047

Sánchez, Á. J., Lavín, J. M., & Endara, F. (2021). Repercusiones de jugar sin público en la ventaja local, las decisiones arbitrales y en los componentes del juego. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 21(2), 198-212.

Santana, H. A. P., Bettega, O. B., & Dellagrana, R. A. (2021). An analysis of Bundesliga matches before and after social distancing by COVID-19. Science and Medicine in Football, 5, 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/24733938.2021.1903540

Sarmento, H., Marcelino, R., Anguera, M. T., Campaniço, J., Matos, N., & Leitão, J. C.. (2014). Match analysis in football: a systematic review. 32(20), 1831-1843.

Scoppa, V. (2021). Social pressure in the stadiums: Do agents change behavior without crowd support?. Journal of Economic Psychology, 82, 102344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2020.102344

Sedeaud, A., De Larochelambert, Q., Schipman, J., & Toussaint, J. F. (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Away and Home Victories in Soccer and Rugby Union. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3, 695922. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.695922

Sors, F., Grassi, M., Agostini, T., & Murgia, M. (2021). The sound of silence in association football: Home advantage and referee bias decrease in matches played without spectators. European Journal of Sport Science, 21(12), 1597-1605. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1845814

Vandoni, M., Ferraro, O. E., Gatti, A., Marin, L., Giuriato, M., Silvestri, D., Carnevale Pellino, V. (2022). The Role of Crowd Support on Home Advantage during COVID-19 Restrictions on Italian Football Competitions. Comparison between 2018-19 and 2020-21 Seasons of the Italian Serie A and Serie B Championships. Sports, 10(2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports10020017

Wunderlich, F., Weigelt, M., Rein, R., & Memmert, D. (2021). How does spectator presence affect football? Home advantage remains in European top-class football matches played without spectators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Plos One, 16(3), e0248590. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248590

Descargas

Publicado

2024-06-01

Cómo citar

Fernández-Cortés, J. A. ., Mancha-Triguero, D., García-Rubio, J., & Ibáñez, S. J. . (2024). Estudio de estilos de juego en la primera división de fútbol española antes, durante y después del Covid-19 (Study of playing styles in the spanish first division of football before, during and after covid-19). Retos, 56, 770–778. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v56.103414

Número

Sección

Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a