Efectividad del aprendizaje autorregulado en intervenciones en educación física promotoras de actividad física. Revisión sistemática (Effectiveness of self-regulated learning in physical education interventions that promote physical activity. Systematic review)

Autores/as

  • Guillem Bujosa-Quetglas Consejería de Educación, Universidad e Investigación de las Islas Baleares https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6612-0115
  • Pere Palou Sampol Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Instituto de Investigación e Innovación Educativa. Universitat de les Illes Balears https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3362-4675
  • Miquel Ángel Tirado Ramos Consejería de Educación, Universidad e Investigación de las Islas Baleares. Centro de Estudios de Postgrado. Universitat de les Illes Balears
  • Josep Vidal Conti Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Instituto de Investigación e Innovación Educativa. Universitat de les Illes Balears https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4782-2178

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v50.99702

Palabras clave:

Aprendizaje autorregulado, actividad física, tiempo libre, adolescentes, educación física, revisión sistemática. (Self-regulated learning, physical activity, free time, adolescents, physical education, systematic review.)

Resumen

A pesar de los importantes beneficios para la salud que aporta la práctica regular de actividad física (AF) y de las recomendaciones que hace la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en este sentido, se observan altos niveles de sedentarismo en adolescentes. Teniendo en cuenta que la educación física (EF) tiene el potencial de ayudar a incrementar la AF de forma directa e indirecta, se manifiesta la importancia de implementar intervenciones de alta calidad dirigidas a fomentar la adquisición de hábitos de AF y estilos de vida activos, durante el tiempo libre (TL) de los adolescentes. Se realizó una revisión sistemática, según las normas PRISMA, de intervenciones en EF entre los años 2012 y 2022, centradas en el efecto sobre la actividad física durante el tiempo libre (AFTL) en adolescentes de las variables metacognitivas (planificación, autocontrol, evaluación y reflexión) y motivacionales (esfuerzo y autoeficacia) del aprendizaje autorregulado, según el modelo social cognitivo de Zimmerman. Tras aplicar criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 16 artículos que se analizaron en profundidad, describiendo intervenciones en siete países, 106 centros escolares, y más de 4500 alumnos. Los resultados del estudio indican que la enseñanza explícita de estrategias y habilidades de autorregulación en EF es un enfoque efectivo para a aumentar los niveles de AFTL en adolescentes. Los resultados más importantes evidencian que manipular variables metacognitivas y motivacionales del aprendizaje autorregulado, en el contexto de intervenciones multicomponente en EF, es una estrategia eficaz para aumentar la AFTL.            

Palabras clave: aprendizaje autorregulado, actividad física, tiempo libre, adolescentes, educación física, revisión sistemática.

Abstract. Despite the important health benefits of regular physical activity and the recommendations made by the World Health Organization, high levels of sedentary lifestyles are observed in adolescents. Considering that physical education has the potential to help increase physical activity directly and indirectly, it is important to implement high-quality interventions aimed at promoting the acquisition of physical activity habits and active lifestyles during adolescents’ free time. A systematic review was conducted, according to the PRISMA standards, of interventions in physical education between 2012 and 2022, focusing on the effect on physical activity during free time in adolescents of the metacognitive variables (planning, self-control, evaluation, and reflection) and motivational (effort and self-efficacy) of self-regulated learning, according to Zimmerman's social cognitive model. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected and analyzed in depth, describing interventions in seven countries, 106 schools, and more than 4500 students. The study’s results indicate that the explicit teaching of self-regulation strategies and skills in physical education is an effective approach to increase levels of physical activity during adolescents' free time. The most important results provide evidence that manipulating metacognitive and motivational variables of self-regulated learning, within the context of multicomponent interventions in physical education, is an efficacious strategy to enhance free time physical activity.

Key words: self-regulated learning, physical activity, free time, adolescents, physical education, systematic review.

 

 

Citas

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2023-09-15

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Bujosa-Quetglas, G., Palou Sampol, P., Tirado Ramos, M. Ángel, & Vidal Conti, J. (2023). Efectividad del aprendizaje autorregulado en intervenciones en educación física promotoras de actividad física. Revisión sistemática (Effectiveness of self-regulated learning in physical education interventions that promote physical activity. Systematic review). Retos, 50, 487–499. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v50.99702

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