Influencia del desplazamiento activo al colegio sobre la composición corporal y el rendimiento académico en escolares de 10-12 años (Influence of active commuting to school on body composition and academic achievement in schoolchildren aged 10-12 years)

Jaume Gelabert Carulla, Adrià Muntaner Mas, Pere Palou Sampol

Resumen


RESUMEN

Introducción: La literatura científica referente a los beneficios que aporta el desplazamiento activo, hacia y desde el colegio, sobre la composición corporal y el rendimiento académico presenta evidencias no concluyentes.

Objetivo: El presente estudio, de corte transversal, tiene como objetivo examinar la asociación entre el número de desplazamientos activos escolares semanales y diferentes indicadores de composición corporal y en todas las materias oficiales del currículo oficial de Educación Primaria.

Método: La muestra se compuso de un total de 218 escolares entre 10 y 12 años (10.97 ± 0.75). 110 niñas, de tres centros de Palma (Islas Baleares). La información referente a composición corporal y a rendimiento académico fue registrada por el grupo investigador. El desplazamiento activo fue autocumplimentado por los escolares. Se utilizó el análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA), estableciéndose un nivel de significación de P < .05.

Resultados: El desplazamiento activo se asoció significativamente con indicador el de composición corporal correspondiente a perímetro de cintura (P < .034) y rozando la significación en el índice cintura/altura (P < .052), mostrándose valores inferiores en el grupo más pasivo (0-2 desplazamientos activos). En rendimiento académico, la categoría de 3-7 desplazamientos activos mostró puntuaciones significativamente más altas en Ciencias Naturales (P < .014) y Ciencias Sociales (P < .022) frente al grupo más activo (8-10 desplazamientos activos). En Lengua Catalana hubo diferencias significativas (P < .033) pero favorable al grupo de 0-2 desplazamientos activos.

Conclusiones: Diversas variables socioeconómicas y ambientales podrían explicar los resultados hallados, los cuales parecen indicar que el desplazamiento activo no sigue una relación lineal en los indicadores analizados. Futuras investigaciones deberían examinar dicha relación a través de estudios longitudinales.

 

ABSTARCT

Background: The scientific literature concerns the benefits of active commuting to school on body composition and academic performance shows mixed results.

Objective: This cross-sectional study aims to examine the association between the number of weekly active travels to school and the different indicators of body composition and academic achievement considering the official curriculum of Primary Education.

Methods: A total sample of 218 schoolchildren between 10 and 12 years old (10.97 ± 0.75), 110 girls, from three schools from Mallorca (Balearic Islands) were analysed. The information regarding body composition and academic achievement was recorded by the research group. The active commuting was self-fulfilled by the students. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used, establishing a level of significance P < .05.

Results: Active commuting was significantly associated with body composition indicators related to the waist circumference (P < .034) and touching the significance in the waist/height index (P < .052), showing lower values in the most passive group (0-2 active travels). In academic performance, the category (3-7 active travels) showed significantly higher scores in the natural sciences (P < .014) and social sciences (P < .022) in comparison to the most active group (8-10 active travels). In the Catalan language it was also given (P < .033), favorably to the group (0-2 active travels). The reasons for these results can be associated with the socioeconomic and surrounding factors of the subjects.

Conclusions: The results seem to indicate that active commuting does not follow a linear relationship with the indicators analysed. Future researches should examine this relation through longitudinal studies.


Palabras clave


Desplazamiento activo, composición corporal, rendimiento académico, educación primaria, actividad física (Active commuting, body composition, academic achievement, primary school, physical activity).

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Referencias


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