Relación entre el tipo de ejercicio físico y la fatiga cuantificada mediante VFC, CK y el lactato en sangre (Relationship between physical exercise type and fatigue quantified through HRV, CK, and blood lactate)

  • German Hernández-Cruz Facultad de Organización Deportiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • Edson Francisco Estrada-Meneses Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
  • Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
  • Blanca Rocío Rangel-Colmenero Facultad de Organización Deportiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • Luis Felipe Reynoso-Sánchez Departamento de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente
  • Janeth Miranda-Mendoza Facultad de Organización Deportiva, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • José Trinidad Quezada-Chacón Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
Palabras clave: Rendimiento deportivo, medición, biomarcadores de estrés físico, test, (Sports performance, physical stress biomarkers, physical performance test)

Resumen

 

Los atletas son expuestos a cargas de alta intensidad en la búsqueda del rendimiento deportivo, sin embargo, sus efectos no se evalúan apropiadamente. El presente estudio analiza los efectos de cuatro diferentes tipos de ejercicios sobre la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC), diagrama de Poincaré (SD1: desviación estándar 1 y SD2: desviación estándar 2), así como la Creatina Cinasa (CK) y las concentraciones de lactato en sangre como marcadores de fatiga. Para lograr el objetivo, participaron 10 voluntarios sanos quienes se expusieron a fatiga mediante protocolos de ejercicio isotónicos, isométricos, aeróbicos y anaeróbicos. Se tomaron muestras de la SD1 y de la SD2 para posteriormente probar el comportamiento de la fatiga mediante el índice de estrés (SS) como parámetro simpático, y el índice simpático/parasimpático (S/PS), además se midió la raíz cuadrada media de las diferencias sucesivas (rMSSD) como indicadores parasimpáticos. Se recolectaron muestras sanguíneas al comienzo y al final de cada uno de los tipos de ejercicio para determinar los niveles de CK y lactato. La SD1 disminuye en cada protocolo de ejercicio, mientras que el SS y el S/PS incrementan. Lactato y CK incrementan al final de cada protocolo y correlacionan positivamente con el SD1 y S/PS. La VFC, CK y lactato son marcadores sensibles para la detección de fatiga, son sensibles tanto al tipo, duración e intensidad del ejercicio, siendo la VFC un marcador no invasivo y novedoso, simple y útil para los entrenadores y atletas. 

Abstract: Athletes are exposed to high-intensity loads to promote athletic performance, however, the effects are not evaluated appropriately. This study investigates the effects of four types of exhaustion exercises on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Poincaré features (SD1: Standard deviation 1and SD2: Standard deviation 2), Creatine Kinase (CK) and blood lactate concentrations as biomarkers of fatigue. To achieve this purpose, 10 healthy volunteers were exposed to exhaustive exercise using isotonic, isometric, aerobic and anaerobic fatigue protocols. HRV Poincaré features, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) and standard deviation of continuous long-term R-R interval variability (SD2) variables were collected. Fatigue was tested through the sympathetic stress index (SS), the index sympathetic/parasympathetic index (S/PS) and the root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (rMSSD) as parasympathetic index. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the exercises to determine CK and lactate. The SD1 decreased in each exercise protocol, while the SS and S/PS increased. Lactate and CK increased at the end of each protocol and correlated with SD1 and S/PS. HRV, CK, and lactate are acute markers to detect fatigue, are sensitive to the type, duration, and intensity of exercise, being HRV a novel noninvasive marker, simple and useful for sports coaches and athletes.

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Publicado
2022-04-01
Cómo citar
Hernández-Cruz, G., Estrada-Meneses, E., Ramos-Jiménez, A., Rangel-Colmenero, B., Reynoso-Sánchez, L., Miranda-Mendoza, J., & Quezada-Chacón, J. (2022). Relación entre el tipo de ejercicio físico y la fatiga cuantificada mediante VFC, CK y el lactato en sangre (Relationship between physical exercise type and fatigue quantified through HRV, CK, and blood lactate). Retos, 44, 176-182. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v44i0.89479
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas