Dolor de espalda en adolescentes: factores asociados desde un enfoque multifactorial (Back pain in adolescents: associated factors with a multifactorial approach)

  • Noelia González-Gálvez Facultad de Deporte. Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, España. Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe, Murcia – España https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7291-3306
  • María Carrasco-Poyatos Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Almería, Almería, España. Calle Universidad de Almería, s/n, 04120 La Cañada, Almería – España
  • Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal Facultad de Deporte. Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia, Murcia, España. Campus de los Jerónimos, 30107 Guadalupe, Murcia – España. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2708-4817
  • Pablo J. Marcos-Pardo Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Almería, Almería, España. Calle Universidad de Almería, s/n, 04120 La Cañada, Almería – España https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1624-5013
Palabras clave: actividad física, escolares, dolor de espalda, flexibilidad, fuerza del tronco, (Physical activity, schoolchildren, spine pain, flexibility, trunk strength)

Resumen

El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la prevalencia del dolor de espalda en adolescentes y hallar la relación entre el dolor de espalda y algunos factores asociados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 57 escolares con una edad media de 14,11±0,43 años. Se tomaron los datos relativos al peso y la talla, con los que se calculó el IMC; se administró la encuesta sobre el dolor de espalda en adolescentes para conocer los hábitos sobre práctica deportiva, sedentarismo, forma de llevar la mochila y dolor de espalda; y se midió la fuerza flexora y extensora del tronco y la flexibilidad de la musculatura isquiosural. Se encontró que el 43,86% de los sujetos habían sufrido dolor de espalda en algún momento de sus vidas, siendo el dolor lumbar el más habitual (36,84%). Entre un 15 y 25% aproximadamente de los adolescentes habían visitado al médico de cabecera o al fisioterapeuta a causa del dolor de espalda a lo largo de su vida. Se encontró cierta tendencia, sin que hubiera diferencias significativas, a que la presencia de dolor de espalda fuera mayor entre los practicantes de deporte (r=0,250; p=0,059), especialmente entre los que practicaban menos horas a la semana (r=0,348; p=0,076). Los escolares que presentaron dolor de espalda tenían tendencia a presentar menos fuerza flexora y extensora del tronco y una menor extensibilidad de la musculatura isquiosural, sin que hubiera diferencias significativas entre grupos (p>0,05). El sexo, el tiempo en actividades sedentarias, la forma de llevar la mochila y el IMC tampoco se relacionaron con el dolor de espalda (p>0,05). En conclusión, la práctica de deporte, la fuerza del tronco y la extensibilidad isquiosural son variables que podrían afectar a la incidencia de dolor de espalda en adolescentes. 

Abstract. The objective of the current study was to analyze the prevalence of spine pain in adolescents and to show the relationship between back pain and some associated factors. The sample consisted of 57 schoolchildren, mean age 14.11±0.43 years-old. Body mass and height were measured to calculate BMI; the survey about back pain in adolescents was completed to register the prevalence of PA, sedentary lifestyle, way of carrying a backpack and spine pain; and the strength of the flexor and extensor muscles and hamstring extensibility was evaluated. It was found that a 43.86% of the subjects had spine pain, with low back pain as the most common (36.84%). Approximately 15 to 25% of the adolescents had visited the family doctor or physiotherapist because of spine pain throughout their lives. A tendency, with no significant differences, was found for a greater presence of spine pain in sport practitioners (r=0.250; p=0.059), especially among those who practiced fewer hours a week (r=0.348; p=0.076). The schoolchildren who presented spine pain tended to have less flexor and extensor strength of the trunk and less hamstring extensibility, with no significant differences between groups (p>0.05). Sex, time spent in sedentary activities, way of carrying a backpack and BMI were not related to spine pain (p>0.05). In conclusion, the sport practice, trunk strength and hamstring extensibility are variables that could affect the incidence of spine pain in adolescents.

Citas

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
González-Gálvez, N., Carrasco-Poyatos, M., Vaquero-Cristóbal, R., & Marcos-Pardo, P. J. (2022). Dolor de espalda en adolescentes: factores asociados desde un enfoque multifactorial (Back pain in adolescents: associated factors with a multifactorial approach). Retos, 43, 81-87. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.87389
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas