Análisis de lesiones en deportistas de judo: revisión sistemática (Analysis of injuries in Judo athletes: A systematic review)

Palabras clave: Judo, Epidemiologia, Prevención, Artes marciales, Deportes, Lesiones Deportivas, Sistema Musculoesquelético, (Judo, Epidemiology, Prevention, Martial Arts, Sports, Athletes, Athletic Injuries, Musculoskeletal System)

Resumen

El objeto de este estudio consiste en identificar las características generales, etiología y ubicación de las lesiones en los deportistas de Judo. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática hasta julio de 2020 en las bases de datos MEDLINE (a través de PubMed), LILACS (a través de BVS) y Science Direct para encontrar estudios que se centraran en el tipo, la ubicación y las causas de las lesiones en los atletas de Judo de ambos sexos y sexos mayores de 18 años. Se extrajeron los siguientes datos de los estudios: autor/año, país del estudio, tamaño de la muestra, nivel de competencia, tipo de lesión, ubicación y contexto de la lesión. La calidad metodológica de los estudios incluidos se evaluó mediante la herramienta Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP). Se recuperaron un total de 727 estudios de las bases de datos y se seleccionaron 12. Los estudios seleccionados involucraron a deportistas de nivel nacional e internacional. La situación de entrenamiento y competición fue el contexto de lesión más citado. Teniendo en cuenta la etiología de la lesión, la ubicación fue generalizada en la mayoría de los estudios y los tipos de lesión más frecuentes fueron: esguinces, distensiones, luxaciones y fracturas. En relación con la gravedad, las lesiones de cabeza y cuello se describieron en el 66% de los estudios. Nuestros resultados sugieren una mayor conciencia relacionada con las estrategias de aprendizaje técnico para los practicantes de Judo que es independiente del nivel de habilidad. Dado que la etiología de las lesiones es un proceso multifacético, se deben invertir mayores esfuerzos para reducir o evitar lesiones más graves que son más propensas a producir resultados negativos como muerte o discapacidades.

Abstract. This article aimed to identify general characteristics, etiology, and location of injuries in Judo athletes. A systematic literature search was carried out up to July 2020 on the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS (via BVS), and Science Direct to find studies that focused on the type, location, and causes of injuries in Judo athletes of both sexes and older than 18 years old. The following data were extracted from the studies: author/year, study country, sample size, competition level, injury type, location, and context of the injury. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. A total of 727 studies were retrieved from the databases and 12 were selected. The selected studies involved athletes from national and international levels. The situation of training and competition was the most cited context of injury. Considering injury etiology, the location was generalized in most of the studies and the more frequent injury types were: sprains, strains, dislocations, and fractures. In relation to severity, head and neck injuries were described in 66% of the studies. Our results suggest higher awareness related to technical learning strategies to Judo practitioners that is independent of skill level. Since injury etiology is a multifaceted process, increased efforts must be invested to lower or avoid more severe injuries that are more prone to produce negative outcomes like death or disabilities. 

Citas

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Colonna, M., Rolim, Y., Vale, R., Castro, J., Nunes, R., Lima, V., Mallen-Silva, G. C., & Casimiro-Lopes, G. (2022). Análisis de lesiones en deportistas de judo: revisión sistemática (Analysis of injuries in Judo athletes: A systematic review). Retos, 43, 560-566. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.84524
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas