La pupilometría en el socorrismo acuático profesional: la vigilancia como factor determinante del ahogamiento (The use of pupillometry in aquatic lifesaving: vigilance as a key factor in drowning)

Sergio López García, María Inmaculada Martín Villar, José Antonio Navia Manzano, José Enrique Moral García, Mario Amatria Jiménez, Rubén Maneiro Dios, Cristian Abelairas Gómez

Resumen


Una de las causas de muerte significativa en el mundo actual es el ahogamiento por sumersión, la medida preventiva más eficaz es la figura del socorrista acuático, destacando tres funciones principales: prevención, vigilancia e intervención. Un aspecto importante de la vigilancia es el escaneo, siendo escasos los estudios científicos en el método de ejecutarlo. Centrándonos en la disposición psicológica de vigilar, abarca dos acciones entrelazadas: percibir y responder. La percepción es indispensable para la acción, entre ambas está la toma de decisión. Percibiendo, el ojo realiza movimientos oculares habiendo vinculación entre ellos y el proceso de toma de decisión pasando a ser objeto observable y medible con la pupilometría. De este modo, por medio de la pupilometría podrían descubrirse los aspectos que entraña la vigilancia con el objetivo de prevenir de forma más eficaz el ahogamiento. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido organizar y analizar la literatura científica en términos de vigilancia y percepción en socorrismo acuático.


Abstract. One of the most important causes of death nowadays is drowning by submersion. Aquatic lifeguards are considered the most effective preventive measure. Lifeguards are entrusted with three main functions: prevention, surveillance, and intervention. One of the most important aspects of surveillance is scanning. However, there are few studies that focus on how to perform it. The psychological aptitude to watch involves two interlocked actions: perceiving and responding. Perception is essential for action, but between both is decision-making. In the action of perceiving, eyes perform eye movements which have a link to the cognitive process of decision making. Eye movements became observable and measurable with the birth of pupilometry. In this way, pupilomety might help to study the links involved in surveillance in order to prevent drowning more effectively. Thus, the aim of this study was to organize and analyze scientific literature in terms of surveillance and perception in lifesaving.


Palabras clave


Ahogamiento, socorrismo acuático, vigilancia, toma de decisión y pupilometría (Drowning, aquatic lifeguard, surveillance, decision making and pupilometry)

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Referencias


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