A mejor condición física mejores resultados de una ley contra la obesidad (Better fitness, better results of a law against obesity)

Patricio Solis-Urra, Nathalia Fernández-Cueto, Rodrigo Nanjarí, Tamara Huber-Pérez, María Paz Cid-Arnes, Natalia Zurita-Corvalán, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos Cristi-Montero

Resumen


Introducción: La condición física (CF) es un importante predictor de salud en niños y adolescentes, sin embargo, hasta la fecha se desconoce su posible efecto “protector” frente a periodos críticos vinculados a riesgo de obesidad. Objetivo: Evaluar a través de un diseño longitudinal y ecológico la influencia de la CF y su interacción con la implantación de la “Ley Súper 8” sobre diversos parámetros de la composición corporal durante las vacaciones de fiestas patrias (VFP). Metodología: 110 escolares participaron inicialmente del estudio. Tras aplicar los criterios de exclusión, 48 escolares entre 10 y 13 años (52% niñas) conformaron la muestra final. Se determinó la CF (cardiorrespiratoria y muscular) y la composición corporal (peso, índice de masa corporal [IMC], índice de masa triponderal [IMT], índice de masa grasa [IMG] % grasa y % músculo), durante septiembre del año 2015 (sin ley) y 2016 (con ley). Un modelo general lineal y pruebas t-student fueron realizadas, estableciendo como significativo p<0,05. Resultados: Los escolares que presentan un bajo nivel de CF modificaron negativamente su composición corporal (peso corporal, IMG, IMC Z-score y % grasa) durante las VFP tras la implementación de la ley (p<0,05), mientras que en los escolares con un alto nivel de CF se observaron cambios favorables en el % músculo, IMG e IMT (p<0,05). Conclusión: La CF interactúa positivamente con la “Ley Súper 8”. Solo los escolares con buena CF previenen el aumento de diversas variables de la composición corporal vinculadas a obesidad durante las VFP. 


Abstract. Background: Fitness is an important predictor of health in children and adolescents; however, to date has not been demonstrated the protective effect against critical periods related to obesity. Objective: To evaluate the influence of fitness on body composition parameters during national holidays, comparing the 1-year effects with and without the implementation of the “Law Super 8”, considering the fitness as a preventive and possible potential law enhancer. Method: Sample was composed by 48 schoolchildren between 10 and 13 years of age. Fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular) and body composition (weight, body mass index [BMI], triponderal mass index [TMI], fat mass index [FMI], % fat and % muscle) were evaluated during two week of September 2015 (without law) and 2016 (with law). A general linear model and t-student test were used, setting the significant value at p<0.05. Results: body composition (body weight, FMI, BMI Z-score and % fat) of those children presenting low fitness level worsened during national holidays after implementation of law (p<0.05), while those with high fitness level showed favorable changes in % muscular, FMI, and TMI (p<0.05). Conclusion: Changes produced due to “Super 8” law seem to affect positively just children who have high fitness level, preventing increase of variables of body composition related to obesity.


Palabras clave


legislación, obesidad, sobrepeso, capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, fuerza muscular, vacaciones (legislation, obesity, overweight, physical fitness, muscle strength, holiday)

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Referencias


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