Prevalencia de las limitaciones funcionales durante el envejecimiento en la población española y su relación con el índice de masa corporal (Prevalence of functional limitations during aging in a representative sample of Spanish population and its relati

Raquel Leirós-Rodríguez, Vicente Romo-Pérez, Anxela Soto-Rodríguez, José L García-Soidán


Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de las limitaciones funcionales y examinar las asociaciones entre IMC, edad, sexo y limitaciones funcionales. Material y Método: en este estudio transversal se emplearon los datos de 5.970 personas mayores de 65 años (rango de edad: 65-94 años) procedentes de la Encuesta Europea de Salud 2014 (EES14) realizados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y el Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad del Gobierno español. Resultados: los datos mostraron que los hombres tenían una mejor percepción de sus limitaciones funcionales que las mujeres. En todas las variables analizadas, los hombres (sin importar la edad) reportaron menos limitaciones que las mujeres. El índice de masa corporal no obtuvo correlación significativa con el grado de limitación funcional en ninguna de las actividades evaluadas. Conclusiones: las mujeres de 75 años o más y los hombres a partir de los 85 años mostraron una gran dificultad para caminar, subir escaleras, agacharse y transportar cargas de peso medio. De hecho, la edad obtuvo correlaciones significativas con el grado de limitación funcional, al contrario que el índice de masa corporal.

Abstract. Objective: to describe the prevalence of functional limitations and examine its association with BMI, age, and sex. Method: in this cross-sectional study, data from 5,970 people aged 65 and over (age range 65-94 years) was retrieved from the European Health Survey 2014 (EES14) conducted by the National Statistics Institute and the Ministry of Health, Services Social and Equality of the Spanish Government. Results: the data showed that men had a better perception of their functional limitations than women. In all variables analyzed, men (regardless of age) reported fewer limitations than women. Body mass index did not correlate significantly with the degree of functional limitation in any of the evaluated activities. Conclusions: women aged 75 years and over and men over 85 years of age showed great difficulty walking, climbing stairs, bending over, and carrying medium weight loads. In fact, age correlated significantly with the degree of functional limitation, unlike body mass index.

Palabras clave

envejecimiento; prevalencia; actividades de la vida diaria; salud pública; características por sexo (aging; prevalence; activities of daily living; public health; sex characteristics)

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