Influencia del tamaño del campo y horario del partido en la respuesta física de equipos de la Segunda División Española de Fútbol (Effect of pitch size and time of the match in the physical performance of teams the Spanish Second Division)

Jaime Gutierrez, Julen Castellano, David Casamichana, Javier Sánchez-Sanchez

Resumen


El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido analizar la influencia de las variables situacionales tamaño del campo y horario del partido sobre la distancia total recorrida por partido y los metros completados en diferentes rangos de velocidad de equipos de la Liga de Fútbol Profesional Española. Los 22 equipos de la 2ª División ‘A’ tomaron parte del estudio durante la temporada 2013/2014, dando como resultado 634 registros. Se estudió el comportamiento físico de los equipos por medio del registro de la distancia total recorrida y la completada en cinco rangos de velocidad: distancia recorrida a velocidad parado (DPa) < 2 km/h; distancia recorrida a velocidad caminando (DCa) 2-7.3 km/h; distancia recorrida a velocidad trotando (DTr) 7.3-14 km/h; distancia recorrida a velocidad corriendo (DCo) 14-21 km/h; distancia recorrida a velocidad esprintando (DEs) ³ 21 km/h. Para ello se utilizó el sistema de seguimiento multicámara computarizado TRACAB (Chyronhego®, Estados Unidos). Los resultados mostraron que los equipos recorrieron más distancia (p<0,05) en un campo grande (CG) que en uno pequeño (CP) (11.905 ± 463 m vs. 11.722 ± 631 m, respectivamente). En el CG se realizaron más metros (p<0,01) en DPa y DCo, pero menos (p<0,05) en DCa que en el CP. El horario del partido sólo mostró diferencias en DCo, siendo mayor (p<0,05) en horario de tarde y noche, respecto al de mañana. Conocer la influencia de variables situacionales en la demanda física podría ser clave para planificar los ciclos de entrenamiento, establecer el plan estratégico pre-partido o afinar los protocolos de recuperación.


Abstract. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the situational variables, pitch size and time of the match, on the total distance meters covered per match and distance covered at different speed zones per match of teams from the Professional Football League. 22 teams from the Professional football Spanish Second Division took part of the study competing during the season 2013/2014, totalling 634 registers. Physical performance of the teams was studied through total distance covered and meters covered at 5 different speed zones: distance covered standing (DPa) < 2 km/h; distance covered walking (Dca) 2-7.3 km/h; distance covered jogging (DTr) 7.3-14 km/h; distance covered running (DCo) 14-21 km/h; distance covered sprinting (DEs) ³ 21 km/h. The multicamera computerized tracking system TRACAB (Chyronhego®, United States) was used. Results showed that teams covered greater distances (p<0,05) in a big pitch (CG) than in a small one (CP) (11.905 ± 463 m vs. 11.722 ± 631 m, respectively). More meters were covered in CG (p<0,01) than in DPa and DCo, but less (p<0,05) in DCa than in CP. The time of the match caused the DCo to be greater (p<0,05) in the afternoon and night compared to the morning. Knowing the influence of situational variables on team’s physical performance is essential to planning training cycles and establishing a strategic plan before each match.


Palabras clave


Fútbol, variables situacionales, distancia total, rendimiento físico (Football, situational variables, total distance, physical performance)

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