La correlación entre el dolor lumbar y el entrenamiento de fuerza en deportistas de élite: una revisión de la literature (The correlation between low back pain and strength training in elite athletes: a literature review)


  • Lorenzo Baraldo
  • Andrea Battaglino IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi
  • Daniele Piscitelli
  • Leonardo Pellicciari
  • Eleuterio A. Sánchez-Romero
  • Diego Cotella
  • Jorge Hugo Villafañe


Palabras clave:

Lumbalgia, levantamiento de pesas, deporte de fuerza, entrenamiento de fuerza, rehabilitación, lesiones musculares


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la correlación entre el DL y los atletas de élite que practican deportes donde interviene el entrenamiento de fuerza a través del levantamiento de pesas. Para analizar la correlación entre el dolor lumbar y los atletas que practican deportes donde se programa entrenamiento de fuerza, dos autores independientes realizaron una revisión narrativa a través de una búsqueda en la base de datos MEDLINE. La calidad de la metodología del estudio incluido se evaluó utilizando la herramienta de evaluación de calidad de los NIH para estudios transversales y de cohortes observacionales. De los 830 artículos recuperados, después de la evaluación de los títulos, los resúmenes y el texto completo, cuatro estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y se incluyeron en la presente revisión narrativa. La puntuación total del NIH osciló entre 10 y 12 puntos. Los factores demográficos y específicos del deporte pueden influir en la prevalencia del dolor lumbar. Nuestros hallazgos resaltan la importancia de desarrollar investigaciones futuras para proporcionar programas de prevención para reducir la incidencia de LBP, teniendo en cuenta la demografía de los atletas y la naturaleza única de su actividad deportiva.

Palabras clave: Lumbalgia, levantamiento de pesas, deporte de fuerza, entrenamiento de fuerza, rehabilitación, lesiones musculares, correlación.

Abstract. This study aims to analyze the correlation between LBP and elite athletes who practice sports where strength training intervenes via weightlifting. To analyse the correlation between low back pain and athletes who practice sports where strength training programs, a narrative review was conducted by two independent author through MEDLINE database search. Inclued study’s methodology quality has been evaluated using NIH quality assessment tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Out of 830 retrieved articles, after titles, abstracts and full text assessment, four studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present narrative review. The NIH total score ranged from 10 to 12 points. Demographic and sport-specific factors can influence the prevalence of LBP. Our findings highlight the importance of developing future research to provide prevention programs to reduce the incidence of LBP, taking into account the demographics of athletes and the unique nature of their sport activity.

Keywords: Low back pain, weight lifting, strength sport, strength training, rehabilitation, muscle injuries, correlation.



Balague, F., Mannion, A. F., Pellise, F., and Cedraschi, C. (2012). Non-specific low back pain. Lancet 379, 482-91.

Bergstrom, K. A., Brandseth, K., Fretheim, S., Tvilde, K., and Ekeland, A. (2004). Back injuries and pain in adolescents attending a ski high school. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 12, 80-5.

Bozorgmehr, A., Zahednejad, S., Salehi, R., Ansar, N. N., Abbasi, S., Mohsenifar, H., and Villafane, J. H. (2018). Relationships between muscular impairments, pain, and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a cross sectional study. J Exerc Rehabil 14, 1041-1047.

Eriksson, K., Nemeth, G., and Eriksson, E. (1996). Low back pain in elite cross-country skiers. A retrospective epidemiological study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 6, 31-5.

Farahbakhsh, F., Akbari-Fakhrabadi, M., Shariat, A., Cleland, J. A., Farahbakhsh, F., Seif-Barghi, T., Mansournia, M. A., Rostami, M., and Kordi, R. (2018). Neck pain and low back pain in relation to functional disability in different sport activities. J Exerc Rehabil 14, 509-515.

Fares, M. Y., Fares, J., Salhab, H. A., Khachfe, H. H., Bdeir, A., and Fares, Y. (2020). Low Back Pain Among Weightlifting Adolescents and Young Adults. Cureus 12, e9127.

Ferrari, S., Manni, T., Bonetti, F., Villafane, J. H., and Vanti, C. (2015). A literature review of clinical tests for lumbar instability in low back pain: validity and applicability in clinical practice. Chiropr Man Therap 23, 14.

Ferreira, P. H., Ferreira, M. L., and Hodges, P. W. (2004). Changes in recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with low back pain: ultrasound measurement of muscle activity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 29, 2560-6.

Fett, D., Trompeter, K., and Platen, P. (2017). Back pain in elite sports: A cross-sectional study on 1114 athletes. PLoS One 12, e0180130.

Honda, J., Chang, S. H., and Kim, K. (2018). The effects of vision training, neck musculature strength, and reaction time on concussions in an athletic population. J Exerc Rehabil 14, 706-712.

Hoy, D., Bain, C., Williams, G., March, L., Brooks, P., Blyth, F., Woolf, A., Vos, T., and Buchbinder, R. (2012). A systematic review of the global prevalence of low back pain. Arthritis Rheum 64, 2028-37.

Klomklorm, A., Ruangthai, R., Vaithanomsat, P., Sukatta, U., and Phoemsapthawee, J. (2020). Concurrent training and Eri silkworm pupae ingestion improve resting and exercise fat oxidation and energy expenditure in obese adults. J Exerc Rehabil 16, 467-479.

Negrini, S., Imperio, G., Villafane, J. H., Negrini, F., and Zaina, F. (2013). Systematic reviews of physical and rehabilitation medicine Cochrane contents. Part 1. Disabilities due to spinal disorders and pain syndromes in adults. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 49, 597-609.

Ng, L., Perich, D., Burnett, A., Campbell, A., and O'Sullivan, P. (2014). Self-reported prevalence, pain intensity and risk factors of low back pain in adolescent rowers. J Sci Med Sport 17, 266-70.

O'Sullivan, P. (2005). Diagnosis and classification of chronic low back pain disorders: maladaptive movement and motor control impairments as underlying mechanism. Man Ther 10, 242-55.

Park, S. (2020). Theory and usage of tensiomyography and the analysis method for the patient with low back pain. J Exerc Rehabil 16, 325-331.

Pillastrini, P., Ferrari, S., Rattin, S., Cupello, A., Villafane, J. H., and Vanti, C. (2015). Exercise and tropism of the multifidus muscle in low back pain: a short review. J Phys Ther Sci 27, 943-5.

Sanchez Romero, E. A., Alonso Perez, J. L., Munoz Fernandez, A. C., Battaglino, A., Castaldo, M., Cleland, J. A., and Villafane, J. H. (2021). Reliability of Sonography Measures of the Lumbar Multifidus and Transversus Abdominis during Static and Dynamic Activities in Subjects with Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain. Diagnostics (Basel) 11.

Schulz, S. S., Lenz, K., and Buttner-Janz, K. (2016). Severe back pain in elite athletes: a cross-sectional study on 929 top athletes of Germany. Eur Spine J 25, 1204-10.

Shariat, A., Alizadeh, R., Moradi, V., Afsharnia, E., Hakakzadeh, A., Ansari, N. N., Ingle, L., Shaw, B. S., and Shaw, I. (2019). The impact of modified exercise and relaxation therapy on chronic lower back pain in office workers: a randomized clinical trial. J Exerc Rehabil 15, 703-708.

Shimozaki, K., Nakase, J., Yoshioka, K., Takata, Y., Asai, K., Kitaoka, K., and Tsuchiya, H. (2018). Incidence rates and characteristics of abnormal lumbar findings and low back pain in child and adolescent weightlifter: A prospective three-year cohort study. PLoS One 13, e0206125.

Siewe, J., Rudat, J., Rollinghoff, M., Schlegel, U. J., Eysel, P., and Michael, J. W. (2011). Injuries and overuse syndromes in powerlifting. Int J Sports Med 32, 703-11.

Trompeter, K., Fett, D., and Platen, P. (2017). Prevalence of Back Pain in Sports: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Sports Med 47, 1183-1207.

Villafane, J. H., Gobbo, M., Peranzoni, M., Naik, G., Imperio, G., Cleland, J. A., and Negrini, S. (2016). Validity and everyday clinical applicability of lumbar muscle fatigue assessment methods in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review. Disabil Rehabil 38, 1859-71.

Villafane, J. H., Zanetti, L., Isgro, M., Cleland, J. A., Bertozzi, L., Gobbo, M., and Negrini, S. (2015). Methods for the assessment of neuromotor capacity in non-specific low back pain: Validity and applicability in everyday clinical practice. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 28, 201-14.

Walker, B. F. (2000). The prevalence of low back pain: a systematic review of the literature from 1966 to 1998. J Spinal Disord 13, 205-17.

Westcott, W. L. (2012). Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med Rep 11, 209-16.




Cómo citar

Baraldo , L. ., Battaglino, A., Piscitelli, D. . ., Pellicciari, L., Sánchez-Romero, E. A. ., Cotella, D. . ., & Villafañe, J. H. . . (2023). La correlación entre el dolor lumbar y el entrenamiento de fuerza en deportistas de élite: una revisión de la literature (The correlation between low back pain and strength training in elite athletes: a literature review). Retos, 48, 727–731.



Revisiones teóricas, sistemáticas y/o metaanálisis

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a