El efecto relativo de la edad en los deportes de equipo de invasión: una revisión sistemática en los deportes juveniles

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.94211

Palabras clave:

edade realtiva, desportes colectivos, juventud, efectos sociales, talento

Resumen

La diferencia de fechas de nacimiento entre atletas de la misma edad puede resultar en una ventaja para el relativamente mayor. Esto se conoce como el efecto de la edad relativa (RAE). Este efecto puede interferir en la práctica de niños y jóvenes deportistas y también puede influir en su entrenamiento y desarrollo para alcanzar un alto nivel en el deporte. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo revisar investigaciones previas a partir de la siguiente pregunta: “¿Cuáles son las influencias y consecuencias de el RAE en la práctica deportiva de los jóvenes deportistas en deportes colectivos de invasión?”. El método utilizado fue una revisión sistemática de la literatura basada en el método PRISMA. Los descriptores “efecto de la edad relativa” AND “deporte” fueron utilizados en el Portal de Periódicos de la CAPES y en las plataformas Pub Med. Después de aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión y realizar los análisis necesarios, se incluyeron en el estudio 82 artículos. Se constató que el alto nivel competitivo, la popularidad del deporte, la percepción de los entrenadores y las características biológicas, principalmente en el período de la pubertad, tienen mayor influencia en efecto de la edad relativa e interfieren en la permanencia y carrera deportiva de los atletas juveniles.

Abstract. The difference in birth dates between athletes of the same age can result in an advantage for the relatively older one. This is referred to as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect can interfere in the practice of children and youth athletes and can also influence their training and development to reach a high level of the sport. This study aimed to review previous research based on the following question: “What are the influences and consequences of the RAE in the sports practice of youth athletes in invasion team sports?” The method used was a systematic literature review based on the PRISMA method. The descriptors relative age effect AND sport were used on the CAPES Periodicals Portal and Pub Med platforms. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria and performing the necessary analyses, 82 articles were included in the study. It was found that the high competitive level, the sport’s popularity, coaches’ perception, and biological characteristics, primarily in the puberty period, have the greatest influence on the relative age effect and interfere in the permanence and sports careers of youth athletes.

Citas

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2022-09-28

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Silva, L. A., Leonardo, L., Rodrigues, H. de A., & Krahenbühl, T. (2022). El efecto relativo de la edad en los deportes de equipo de invasión: una revisión sistemática en los deportes juveniles. Retos, 46, 641–652. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v46.94211

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