Efectos de 8 semanas de ejercicio excéntrico y terapia de ondas de choque extracorpóreas sobre el tejido tendinoso, dolor percibido, potencia y fuerza muscular en atletas diagnosticados con tendinopatía rotuliana: un estudio longitudinal (Effects of 8 weeks of eccentric exercise and extracorporeal shockwave therapy on tendon tissue, perceived pain, and muscle power and strength in athletes diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy: A longitudinal study)


  • Ángela Sánchez-Gómez Universidad de Córdoba
  • Raúl Domínguez 695182853 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6891-391X
  • Borja Sañudo Universidad de Sevilla
  • Alejandro F. San Juan Universidad Politécnica de Madrid



Palabras clave:

Injury, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation, Recovery, Return to play, Tendinopathy


Antecedentes: La tendinopatía rotuliana (TR) es una lesión con una alta prevalencia en deportistas que causa dolor, pérdida de fuerza y rendimiento deportivo. Objetivo: analizar el efecto de 8 semanas de tratamiento un programa de rehabilitación conservador que incluye entrenamiento excéntrico (EE), estiramientos y ondas de choque extracorpóreas (OCE) y terapia manual sobre la rigidez tendinosa, dolor percibido, potencia y fuerza muscular en atletas diagnosticados de TR. Material y método: ocho deportistas diagnosticados con TR realizaron 8 semanas de EE, estiramientos y OCE. Al inicio (PRE), 4 semanas (INT) y al finalizar las 8 semanas de intervención (POST), los participantes realizaron un test de salto con contramovimiento (CMJ), un test incremental en sentadilla para determinar la potencia pico (PP), velocidad media a PP (PPMV) y carga levantada (PPKG). También, se midió un test de 5 repeticiones máximas (5-RM) en el ejercicio de extensión de rodillas, así como el dolor percibido usando la escala para TR del Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA-P) y el grosor del tendón rotuliano de la pierna lesionada y no lesionada. Resultados: se reportó una menor rigidez del tendón en la pierna lesionada en el PRE vs. POST (p=0,045), también se encontraron diferencias con respecto a la pierna no lesionada en el PRE (p=0,004) y INT (p=0,025), pero no en el POST (p=0,123). En el test de 5-RM y el CMJ se registraron diferencias en el POST vs. PRE e INT (p<0,05). En cuanto a la sentadilla, se reportaron diferencias en PPKG POST vs. PRE (p=0,0333) e INT (p=0,007) mientras que en el PP se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas únicamente en POST vs. PRE (p=0,037). Conclusiones: 8 semanas de EE, estiramientos, OCE y terapia manual induce a efectos positivos sobre la rigidez del tendón, la potencia y fuerza muscular de las extremidades inferiores en atletas con TR.

Palabras clave: Lesión, Fisioterapia, Rehabilitación, Recuperación, Vuelta a la competición, Tendinopatía.

Abstract. Background: Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is an injury with a high prevalence in athletes that causes pain, loss of strength and sport performance levels. Purpose: to analyse the effects of 8 weeks of a conservative physical rehabilitation program that combine eccentric exercise (EE), stretching, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), and manual therapy on tendon tissue, perceived pain, and muscle power and strength in athletes diagnosed with PT. Material and methods: Eight athletes diagnosed with PT, performed 8 weeks of EE, stretching, and ESWT. At the beginning (PRE), at 4-weeks (INT), and at the end of the 8-week intervention (POST), participants performed a countermovement jump test (CMJ), and a gradual back squat (BS) test to determine peak power (PP), mean velocity in PP (PPMV), and load lifted (PPKG). Furthermore, a maximum test of 5-repetition (5-RM) was evaluated in leg extension exercise, perceived pain using the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella scale (VISA-P), and thickness in the injured and uninjured knee. Results: It was reported a lower tendon thickness POST vs. PRE in the injured knee (p=0.045), and lower values compared to the uninjured knee at PRE (p=0.004), and INT (p=0.025), but not POST (p=0.123). The CMJ and 5-RM tests showed statistical differences POST vs. PRE, and INT (p<0.05). Regarding BS, differences were reported in PPKG POST vs PRE (p=0.033), and INT (p = 0.007), while in PP differences were found in POST vs PRE (p=0.037). Conclusions: 8 weeks of EE, stretching, ESWT, and manual therapy induce positive effects on tendon tissue healing, lower limbs muscle power and strength performance in athletes with PT.

Keywords: Injury, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation, Recovery, Return to play, Tendinopathy.


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Cómo citar

Sánchez-Gómez, Ángela ., Domínguez, R., Sañudo, B. ., & San Juan, A. F. . (2023). Efectos de 8 semanas de ejercicio excéntrico y terapia de ondas de choque extracorpóreas sobre el tejido tendinoso, dolor percibido, potencia y fuerza muscular en atletas diagnosticados con tendinopatía rotuliana: un estudio longitudinal (Effects of 8 weeks of eccentric exercise and extracorporeal shockwave therapy on tendon tissue, perceived pain, and muscle power and strength in athletes diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy: A longitudinal study). Retos, 47, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v47.93378



Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas