¿Existe alguna relación entre la posición del ciclismo y la aparición de dolor lumbar? Una revisión sistematizada (Is there any relation between the position of cycling and the appearance of lower pain? A systematized Review)

  • Andrés Fuentes Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Chile
  • Luciano Martínez Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Chil
  • Esteban Aedo-Muñoz Escuela de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Chile. Programa de Posgraduación en Educación Física, Universidad Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Brasil. Programa de Posgraduación en Educación Física, Universidad Federal de Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brasil
  • Ciro Brito Programa de Posgraduación en Educación Física, Universidad Federal Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Brasil
  • Bianca Miarka Programa de Posgraduación en Educación Física, Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brasil
  • David Arriagada-Tarifeño Laboratorio de Neuromecánica Aplicada, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Chile
Palabras clave: Ciclismo, Biomecánica, Columna vertebral, Dolor Lumbar, (bicycling, biomechanics, spine, low back pain)

Resumen

Este trabajo analizó la relación entre la posición de flexión mantenida durante la práctica de ciclismo y la posible relación con dolor lumbar. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistematizada a través del proceso PRISMA® entre 2015-2020, en las bases de datos PubMed, PEDro, Scopus y Web of Science, empleando los términos; “cycling”, “cyclist”, “position”, “positioning”, “overuse injury”, “spinal biomechanic”, “lower back”, “lower back pain”. Se seleccionaron 5 artículos que cumplieron con todos los criterios de inclusión. Los artículos seleccionados mostraron cambios en la inclinación pélvica, ángulos de flexión de tronco en tomadas medias y bajas del manillar de bicicleta de ruta y bicicleta de montaña, variaciones del asiento más arriba o atrás de la posición adecuada según longitud entrepiernas, la posición de rodilla 40º y tronco 35º de manera simultánea cuando el pedal está en 180º, mientras que en posición anatómica se describieron; ángulo máximo de inclinación de pelvis en anteversión, ángulo máximo de inclinación de pelvis en retroversión y ángulo máximo de flexión lumbar se asocian con molestias o dolor lumbar. Sin embargo, es posible establecer que la asociación entre la práctica de ciclismo y el dolor lumbar no ha sido suficientemente estudiada, lo que nos hace inferir que surge la necesidad de actualizar la información con el objetivo de prevenir este tipo de lesiones asociadas a la posición en ciclismo. 

Abstract. This article analyzed the relationship between the flexion position maintained during cycling and the possible relationship with low back pain. A systematic review was carried out through the PRISMA process between 2015-2020, in the PubMed, PEDro, Scopus and Web of Science databases, using the terms; "cycling", "cyclist", "position", "positioning", "injury from overuse", "biomechanics of the spine", "lumbar region", "low back pain". Five articles were selected that met all the inclusion criteria. Selected articles showed changes in pelvic tilt, torso flexion angles in medium and low strokes of the handlebars of the road bike and mountain bike, variations of the highest seat or the appropriate backrest according to the groin length, knee position 40 and trunk 35º simultaneously when the pedal is at 180º, while in anatomical position they have been described; The maximum angle of pelvic tilt in anteversion, the maximum angle of pelvic tilt in retroversion and the maximum angle of lumbar flexion are associated with pain or discomfort in the lumbar region. However, it is possible to establish that the association between cycling and low back pain has not been sufficiently studied, which leads us to infer that there is a need to update the information in order to prevent this type of injury associated with the position in cycling.

Citas

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Publicado
2022-01-06
Cómo citar
Fuentes, A., Martínez, L., Aedo-Muñoz, E., Brito, C., Miarka, B., & Arriagada-Tarifeño, D. (2022). ¿Existe alguna relación entre la posición del ciclismo y la aparición de dolor lumbar? Una revisión sistematizada (Is there any relation between the position of cycling and the appearance of lower pain? A systematized Review). Retos, 43, 651-659. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v43i0.89363
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Revisiones teóricas