Fuerza dinámica y potencia muscular en atletas de jiu-jitsu brasileño de élite y no élite: una revisión sistemática con metanálisis (Dynamic strength and muscle power in elite and non-elite Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) athletes: a systemat-ic review with meta-analysis)

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v52.101845

Palabras clave:

Condición Física, Artes Marciales, Fisiología del Deporte, Fenómenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos y Neurales, Judo

Resumen

Una revisión sistemática con meta-análisis sobre la fuerza dinámica y el poder muscular en atletas de jiu-jitsu brasileño (BJJ) élite y no élite es esencial para proporcionar una evaluación completa y cuantitativa de los atributos físicos críticos para el rendimiento, permitiendo una mejor comprensión de las necesidades de entrenamiento y las características físicas que distinguen a los atletas de diferentes niveles en este deporte. Por lo tanto, este estudio pretende sintetizar de manera integral la literatura existente sobre fuerza y ​​potencia muscular en el contexto del Jiu-jitsu brasileño (BJJ), realizando un análisis comparativo entre atletas de élite y no élite. La investigación se realizó hasta el 20 de abril de 2022, empleando el protocolo PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) para buscar sistemáticamente en bases de datos electrónicas utilizando las palabras clave: "Brazilian Jiu-jitsu" o "BJJ" o "Jiu- jitsu" y "potencia" o "potencia muscular" o "aptitud física" o "fuerza muscular" o "fuerza". Tras un riguroso proceso de selección, se incluyeron 26 artículos en la revisión sistemática. Posteriormente, para la evaluación de la evidencia se empleó la herramienta GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluaciones). Las evaluaciones primarias de la fuerza dinámica abarcaron protocolos que involucraban press de banca, sentadilla y dominadas (gi). En el contexto de la potencia muscular, el metanálisis consideró parámetros como el salto con contramovimiento (CMJ), el salto de longitud de pie y variables derivadas de la potencia del salto evaluadas en la plataforma de fuerza, incluida la velocidad máxima, la potencia máxima, la potencia media y la potencia máxima. fuerza. Los datos mostraron un tamaño de efecto sustancial para la fuerza [1.012 (p≤0.0001)] y un tamaño de efecto moderado para la potencia [0.619 (p≤0.0001)], indicando un rendimiento superior entre los atletas de élite en comparación con sus contrapartes no élite. Aunque la potencia predomina en la mayoría de las acciones en BJJ, la fuerza surge como un elemento crucial que distingue a los atletas de élite de los no élite en este deporte. Esta realización tiene implicaciones significativas para el entrenamiento y la prevención de lesiones, ya que tanto la fuerza como la potencia requieren un entrenamiento especializado para mejorar el rendimiento en el deporte.

Palabras clave: Condición Física, Artes Marciales, Fisiología del Deporte, Fenómenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos y Neurales, Judo.

Abstract. A systematic review with meta-analysis on the dynamic strength and muscle power in elite and non-elite Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) athletes is essential to provide a comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of the physical attributes critical for performance, allowing for a better understanding of the training needs and physical characteristics that distinguish different levels of athletes in this sport. Therefore, this study endeavors to comprehensively synthesize existing literature on muscle strength and power in the context of BJJ, making a comparative analysis between elite and non-elite athletes. The research was conducted up to April 20, 2022, employing the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) protocol to systematically search electronic databases using the keywords: "Brazilian Jiu-jitsu" or "BJJ" or "Jiu-jitsu" and "power" or "muscle power" or "physical fitness" or "muscle strength" or "strength." Following a rigorous selection process, 26 articles were included in the systematic review. Subsequently, the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) tool was employed for evidence assessment. The primary assessments of dynamic strength encompassed protocols involving the Bench press, squat, and pull-up-gi. In the context of muscle power, the meta-analysis considered parameters such as the countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump, and variables derived from jump power assessed on the force platform, including Peak velocity, peak power, mean power, and maximum force. The data showed a substantial effect size for strength [1.012 (p≤0.0001)] and a moderate effect size for power [0.619 (p≤0.0001)], indicating superior performance among elite athletes compared to their non-elite counterparts. Although power is predominant in most BJJ actions, strength emerges as a crucial element distinguishing elite from non-elite athletes in this sport. This realization carries significant implications for training and injury prevention, as both strength and power necessitate specialized training to enhance performance in the sport.

Keywords: Physical Fitness, Martial Arts, Sport Physiology, Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena, Judo

Biografía del autor/a

Bianca Miarka , Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Tiene una beca del Programa de Jóvenes Científicos de Nuestro Estado FAPERJ y profesor de judo en la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro, pertenece a la facultad del Programa de Posgrado en Educación Física de la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro (UFRJ) y el programa asociado entre la Universidad De Juiz de Fora y Viçosa (UFJF / UFV). Es un ex atleta internacional en el equipo de remo y el equipo brasileño de judo, con títulos internacionales. Al comienzo de su carrera docente, el trabajo se desarrolló en instituciones educativas y centros deportivos con escolares, para luego componer el grupo de técnicos de la selección principal de la ciudad de Londrina. Participó activamente en el grupo de investigación en Psicología del Deporte. En el área técnico-táctica, se aconsejó a atletas que eran medallistas olímpicos, como Leandro Guilheiro. Realizó un postdoctorado en la Universidad Federal de Pelotas (2017), tiene un doctorado en Biodinámica de la Escuela de Educación Física y Deporte de la Universidad de São Paulo (2014). Graduado en Ciencias del Deporte (2005) y especialización en Entrenamiento Deportivo (2007) de la Universidad Estatal de Londrina y maestría en Educación Física de la Escuela de Educación Física y Deporte de la Universidad de São Paulo (2010). Su investigación se centra en el análisis de rendimiento técnico-táctico, psicobiología y neurociencia en deportes y peleas.

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Publicado

2024-03-01

Cómo citar

Fernandes Da Costa, L. O., Sobarzo Soto, D. A. ., José Brito, C., Aedo-Muñoz, E., & Miarka, B. (2024). Fuerza dinámica y potencia muscular en atletas de jiu-jitsu brasileño de élite y no élite: una revisión sistemática con metanálisis (Dynamic strength and muscle power in elite and non-elite Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) athletes: a systemat-ic review with meta-analysis). Retos, 52, 291–303. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v52.101845

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