Agrupación de jóvenes jugadores de fútbol para los entrenamientos de acondicionamiento de acuerdo a su maduración y rendimiento físico: Un ejemplo práctico (Young soccer players aggrupation for conditioning trainings according to players’ maturation and p


  • Ivan Peña Gónzalez
  • Jose Manuel Sarabia
  • Manuel Moya-Ramón


Palabras clave:

Fútbol, Evaluaciones, Rendimiento físico, Maduración, (Soccer, testing, physical performance, maturation)


Bajo la estructura actual del fútbol, los jóvenes jugadores son organizados de acuerdo con su edad cronológica, lo que puede crear diferencias físicas y madurativas entre ellos dentro de un mismo grupo de edad. Esas diferencias influyen en el proceso de identificación y selección de talentos y en el desarrollo de la fuerza y el acondicionamiento físico Este estudio proporciona un ejemplo llevado a cabo en un club de fútbol español el cual reorganizó a sus jugadores en función de su estado madurativo y su condición física con el objetivo de comparar su nivel de acondicionamiento y su desarrollo en un contexto madurativo más homogéneo. En el trabajo se muestran las medidas, los análisis realizados a los jugadores y ejemplos de jugadores que fueron asignados a otros equipos de acuerdo con este modelo de agrupación. Finalmente se muestran recomendaciones para el entrenamiento de fuerza y el acondicionamiento de acuerdo con la literatura científica relacionada con adaptaciones específicas a lo largo del proceso madurativo.

Abstract. Under the current structure of soccer, young players are organized according to their chronological age, which may create physical differences between them within a same age-group. These differences influence the player talent identification and selection process and the strength and conditioning development as they give an advantage to those players who are more advanced in their maturation. The present study provides an example carried out by a Spanish soccer academy which re-organized their players according to their maturity status and their physical condition with the aim of comparing conditioning levels and development in a more homogeneous context. The measurements, the player data analysis that was performed and the examples of players who were assigned to other teams according to this grouping model are shown. Final strength and conditioning training recommendations are provided from the scientific literature regarding the specific adaptations throughout the maturation process. 


Abbott, W., Williams, S., Brickley, G., & Smeeton, N. (2019). Effects of Bio-Banding upon Physical and Technical Performance during Soccer Competition: A Preliminary Analysis. Sports, 7(8), 193.

Asadi, A., Ramirez-Campillo, R., Arazi, H., & Sáez de Villarreal, E. (2018). The effects of maturation on jumping ability and sprint adaptations to plyometric training in youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(21), 2405–2411.

Bangsbo, J., Iaia, F. M., & Krustrup, P. (2008). The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. Sports Medicine, 38(1), 37–51.

Beunen, G., & Malina, R. M. (2008). Growth and Biologic Maturation: Relevance to Athletic Performance. In The Young Athlete (pp. 3–17). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bliss, A., & Birckley, G. (2012). Effects of relative ag on physical and physiological performance characteristics in youth soccer. 53(4), 475–480.

Bosco, C., Luhtanen, P., & Komi, P. V. (1983). A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 50(2), 273–282.

Bradley, B., Johnson, D., Hill, M., McGee, D., Kana-ah, A., Sharpin, C., Sharp, P., Kelly, A., Cumming, S. P., & Malina, R. M. (2019). Bio-banding in academy football: player’s perceptions of a maturity matched tournament. Annals of Human Biology, 46(5), 400–408.

Brooks-Gunn, J., & Warren, M. P. (1988). The Psychological Significance of Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Nine- to Eleven-Year-Old Girls. Child Development, 59(4), 1061.

Carling, C., Le Gall, F., Reilly, T., & Williams, A. M. (2009). Do anthropometric and fitness characteristics vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth academy soccer players? Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 19(1), 3–9.

Cobley, S., Baker, J., Wattie, N., & Mckenna, J. (2009). Annual Age-grouping and Athlete Develop- ment. A Metas-analytical Review of Relative Age Effects in Sport. Sports Med, 39(39), 235–256.

Cumming, S. P., Brown, D. J., Mitchell, S., Bunce, J., Hunt, D., Hedges, C., Crane, G., Gross, A., Scott, S., Franklin, E., Breakspear, D., Dennison, L., White, P., Cain, A., Eisenmann, J. C., & Malina, R. M. (2018). Premier League academy soccer players’ experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(7), 757–765.

Cumming, S. P., Lloyd, R. S., Oliver, J. L., Eisenmann, J. C., & Malina, R. M. (2017). Bio-banding in sport: Applications to competition, talent identification, and strength and conditioning of youth athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 39(2), 34–47.

Delorme, N., Boiche, J., & Raspaud, M. (2010). Relative age and dropout in French male soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(7), 717–722.

Deprez, D., Coutts, A. J., Fransen, J., Deconinck, F., Lenoir, M., Vaeyens, R., & Philippaerts, R. (2013). Relative age, biological maturation and anaerobic characteristics in elite youth soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(10), 897–903.

Dixon, J., Horton, S., Weir, P., Dixon, J. ;, & Horton, S. ; (2011). Relative Age Effects: Implications for Leadership Development. In The International Journal of Sport and Society (Vol. 2, Issue 2).

Ford, P., De Ste Croix, M., Lloyd, R., Meyers, R., Moosavi, M., Oliver, J., Till, K., & Williams, C. (2011). The long-term athlete development model: physiological evidence and application. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(4), 389–402.

Gil, S., Zabala-Lili, J., Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I., Aduna, B., Lekue, J. A., Santos-Concejero, J., & Granados, C. (2014). Talent identification and selection process of outfield players and goalkeepers in a professional soccer club. Journal of Sport Science, December, 1–9.

González-Víllora, S., Pastor-Vicedo, J. C., & Cordente, D. (2015). Relative Age Effect in UEFA Championship Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 47(1), 237–248.

Götze, M., & Hoppe, M. W. (2021). Relative Age Effect in Elite German Soccer: Influence of Gender and Competition Level. Frontiers in Physiology, 11.

Gutiérrez Díaz del Campo, D. (2015). Revisión y propuestas de intervención sobre el Efecto de la Edad Relativa en los ámbitos educativo y deportivo (Review of relative age effects and potential ways to reduce them in sport and education). Retos, 23(23), 51–63.

Hancock, D. J., Adler, A. L., & Côté, J. (2013). A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(6), 630–637.

Hermanussen, M., Geiger-Benoit, K., Burmeister, J., & Sippell, W. G. (1988). Periodical changes of short term growth velocity ('mini growth spurts’) in human growth. Annals of Human Biology, 15(2), 103–109.

Kirkendall, D. T. (2014). The relative age effect has no influence on match outcome in youth soccer. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3(4), 273–278.

Kozieł, S. M., & Malina, R. M. (2018). Modified Maturity Offset Prediction Equations: Validation in Independent Longitudinal Samples of Boys and Girls. Sports Medicine, 48(1), 221–236.

Lloyd, R. S., & Oliver, J. L. (2012). The youth physical development model : A new approach to long-term athletic development. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 34(3), 61–72.

Lloyd, R. S., Oliver, J. L., Faigenbaum, A. D., Howard, R., De Ste Croix, M. B. A., Williams, C. A., Best, T. M., Alvar, B. A., Micheli, L. J., Thomas, D. P., Hatfield, D. L., Cronin, J. B., & Myer, G. D. (2015). Long-term athletic development- Part 1: A pathway for all youth. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(5), 1439–1450.

Lloyd, R. S., Oliver, J. L., Faigenbaum, A. D., Myer, G. D., & De Ste Croix, M. B. A. (2014). Chronological Age vs. Biological Maturation. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(5), 1454–1464.

Lloyd, R. S., Radnor, J. M., De Ste Croix, M. B. A., Cronin, J. B., & Oliver, J. L. (2016). Changes in sprint and jump performances after traditional, plyometric, and combined resistance training in male youth pre- and post-peak height velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(5), 1239–1247.

Malina, R. M., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Human Kinetics.

Malina, R. M., & Kozieł, S. M. (2014). Validation of maturity offset in a longitudinal sample of Polish boys. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(5), 424–437.

Malina, R. M., Kozieł, S. M., Králik, M., Chrzanowska, M., & Suder, A. (2020). Prediction of maturity offset and age at peak height velocity in a longitudinal series of boys and girls. American Journal of Human Biology, August, 1–15.

Malina, R. M., Rogol, A. D., Cumming, S. P., Coelho E Silva, M. J., & Figueiredo, A. J. (2015). Biological maturation of youth athletes: assessment and implications. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(13), 852–859.

Merton, R. K. (1948). The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. In Source: The Antioch Review (Vol. 8, Issue 2).

Meylan, C., Cronin, J. B., Oliver, J. L., Hopkins, W. G., & Contreras, B. (2014). The effect of maturation on adaptations to strength training and detraining in 11-15-year-olds. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 24(3), 156–164.

Mirwald, R. L., Baxter-Jones, A. D. G., Bailey, D. a, & Beunen, G. P. (2002). An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurements. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(4), 689–694.

Moran, J., Sandercock, G. R. H., Ramírez-Campillo, R., Meylan, C., Collison, J., & Parry, D. A. (2017). A meta-analysis of maturation-related variation in adolescent boy athletes’ adaptations to short-term resistance training. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(11), 1041–1051.

Moran, J., Sandercock, G. R. H., Ramírez-Campillo, R., Todd, O., Collison, J., & Parry, D. A. (2017). Maturation-Related Effect of Low-Dose Plyometric Training on Performance in Youth Hockey Players. Pediatric Exercise Science, 29(2), 194–202.

Mujika, I., Vaeyens, R., Matthys, S. P. J., Santisteban, J., Goiriena, J., & Philippaerts, R. (2009). The relative age effect in a professional football club setting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11), 1153–1158.

Musch, & Grondin, S. (2001). Unequal Competition as an Impediment to Personal Development: A Review of the Relative Age Effect in Sport. Developmental Review, 21, 147–167.

Peña-González, I., Fernández-Fernández, J., Cervelló, E., & Moya-Ramón, M. (2019). Effect of biological maturation on strength-related adaptations in young soccer players. PLOS ONE, 14(7), e0219355.

Peña-González, I., Fernández-Fernández, J., Moya-Ramón, M., & Cervelló, E. (2018). Relative Age Effect, Biological Maturation, and Coaches’ Efficacy Expectations in Young Male Soccer Players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 89(3), 373–379.

Radnor, J. M., Lloyd, R. S., & Oliver, J. L. (2017). Individual Response to Different Forms of Resistance Training in School-Aged Boys. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 787–797.

Radnor, J. M., Oliver, J. L., Waugh, C. M., Myer, G. D., Moore, I. S., & Lloyd, R. S. (2018). The Influence of Growth and Maturation on Stretch-Shortening Cycle Function in Youth. Sports Medicine, 48(1), 57–71.

Reilly, T., Williams, A. M., Nevill, A., & Franks, A. (2000). A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(9), 695–702.

Romann, M., Lüdin, D., & Born, D. P. (2020). Bio-banding in junior soccer players: A pilot study. BMC Research Notes, 13(1), 1–5.

Semenick, D. (1990). TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS: The T-test. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 12(1).

Sherar, L. B., Mirwald, R. L., Baxter-Jones, A. D. G., & Thomis, M. (2005). Prediction of adult height using maturity-based cumulative height velocity curves. Journal of Pediatrics, 147(4), 508–514.

Stølen, T., Chamari, K., Castagna, C., & Wisløff, U. (2005). Physiology of Soccer. Sports Medicine, 35(6), 501–536.

Till, K., Morris, R., Emmonds, S., Jones, B., & Cobley, S. (2018). Enhancing the Evaluation and Interpretation of Fitness Testing Data Within Youth Athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 40(5), 24–33.

Unnithan, V., White, J., Georgiou, A., Iga, J., & Drust, B. (2012). Talent identification in youth soccer. In Journal of Sports Sciences (Vol. 30, Issue 15, pp. 1719–1726).

Vincent, J., & Glamser, F. D. (2006). Gender Differences in the Relative Age Effect Among US Olympic Development Program Youth Soccer Players. Journal of Sports Medicine, 24(4), 405–413.

Wattie, N., Schorer, J., & Baker, J. (2015). The Relative Age Effect in Sport: A Developmental Systems Model. In Sports Medicine (Vol. 45, Issue 1, pp. 83–94). Springer International Publishing.

Yagüe, J. M., de la Rubia, A., Sánchez-Molina, J., Maroto-Izquierdo, S., & Molinero, O. (2018). The Relative Age Effect in the 10 Best Leagues of Male Professional Football of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 17(3), 409–416.




Cómo citar

Peña Gónzalez, I., Sarabia, J. M., & Moya-Ramón, M. (2022). Agrupación de jóvenes jugadores de fútbol para los entrenamientos de acondicionamiento de acuerdo a su maduración y rendimiento físico: Un ejemplo práctico (Young soccer players aggrupation for conditioning trainings according to players’ maturation and p. Retos, 43, 98–106.



Experiencias didácticas desarrollas e investigadas con trabajo empírico

Artículos más leídos del mismo autor/a