Revisión de la obesidad como concepto científico (Obesity review as a scientific concept)

  • Sagrario Lobato Huerta Universidad de la Salud del Estado de Puebla https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8220-6819
  • Juan Víctor Moneda Rovira Universidad de la Salud
  • Yaneth Martínez Tovilla Universidad de la Salud
  • José Hugo Eloy Meléndez Aguilar Universidad de la Salud
Palabras clave: Obesidad, concepto, ciencia, investigación, conocimiento, (Obesity, concept, science, research, knowledge)

Resumen

 

El lenguaje según Noam Chomsky, es una capacidad innata que puede emplearse para comunicar la ciencia. Analizar el término obesidad como concepto científico, permitirá su correcto abordaje epistemológico para contribuir con la investigación científica multidisciplinaria que busca reducir esta pandemia. La obesidad es una acumulación excesiva de grasa corporal, por encima de las necesidades fisiológicas y capacidad de adaptación, que puede conducir a efectos adversos para la salud, como una discapacidad. Se considera un estado en el que el tejido adiposo representa más del 20% del peso corporal total en hombres y el 25% en mujeres. Un IMC de 30 kg/m2 o más se cataloga como obesidad. Desde una perspectiva genética, la obesidad es clasificada en tres subdivisiones de acuerdo con el trastorno y número de genes involucrados: monogénica, sindrómica y poligénica. Para las ciencias sociales, involucra un problema sociocultural injertado en una predisposición a nivel individual. Desde la perspectiva evolutiva, el cuerpo humano no está desarrollado para la exposición constante a un ambiente rico en calorías y sedentario. Comprender las perspectivas teóricas actuales que conceptualizan a la obesidad, estipulada como patología en sí misma, como factor de riesgo para las demás enfermedades no transmisibles y como etiología indirecta de discapacidad, permitirá que la investigación científica pueda desarrollarse con panoramas más amplios, a través de su diseño con variables, categorías y teorías mixtas, que permitan formular hipótesis y explicaciones con un enfoque multidisciplinario, en concordancia con la etiología multifactorial de la obesidad. 

Abstract. Language according to Noam Chomsky, is an innate ability that can be used to communicate science. Analyzing the term obesity as a scientific concept will allow its correct epistemological approach to contribute to multidisciplinary scientific research that seeks to reduce this pandemic. Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat, in excess of physiological needs and adaptability, which can lead to adverse health effects, such as disability. It is considered a state in which adipose tissue represents more than 20% of total body weight in men and 25% in women. A BMI of 30 kg / m2 or more is classified as obesity. From a genetic perspective, obesity is classified into three subdivisions according to the disorder and number of genes involved: monogenic, syndromic and polygenic. For the social sciences, it involves a sociocultural problem grafted onto a predisposition at the individual level. From an evolutionary perspective, the human body is not developed for constant exposure to a calorie-rich and sedentary environment. Understanding the current theoretical perspectives that conceptualize obesity, stipulated as a pathology in itself, as a risk factor for other non-communicable diseases and as an indirect etiology of disability, will allow scientific research to be developed with broader perspectives, through its design with mixed variables, categories and theories, which allow the formulation of hypotheses and explanations with a multidisciplinary approach, in accordance with the multifactorial etiology of obesity.

Citas

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Publicado
2021-04-20
Cómo citar
Lobato Huerta, S., Moneda Rovira, J., Martínez Tovilla, Y., & Meléndez Aguilar, J. H. (2021). Revisión de la obesidad como concepto científico (Obesity review as a scientific concept). Retos, 42, 365-374. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.87555
Sección
Revisiones teóricas