El contacto con el deporte paralímpico como medio para cambiar la percepción que tienen los niños de las personas con discapacidad (Contact with Paralympic sport as a means to change children's perception of people with disabilities)

  • Doralice Lange de Souza Universidade Federal do Paraná
  • Jackeline Colere
  • Yasmin Vicente Vieira
Palabras clave: Persona discapacitada. Deporte paralímpico. Percepción. Niños. Medios de comunicación. Estigma. Contacto indirecto, (Person with disability. Paralympic Sports. Perception. Children. Media. Stigmas. Indirect contact)

Resumen

El objetivo de este estudio, de carácter cualitativo y exploratorio, fue verificar si el contacto indirecto con personas con discapacidad (PCD), a través de materiales mediáticos relacionados con el deporte paralímpico, puede cambiar la percepción que los niños tienen de estas personas. Entrevistamos a 18 niños de seis a 12 años, 13 de los cuales fueron entrevistados en un grupo focal y 5 individualmente. Primero, les pedimos a los niños que escribieran en un papel las primeras cinco palabras que les vinieron a la mente cuando escucharon la expresión “persona con discapacidad”. Luego realizamos una entrevista semiestructurada con el fin de explorar más profundamente lo que habían escrito. A continuación, mostramos dos videos que contenían imágenes de PCD realizando con éxito actividades cotidianas, profesionales, artísticas y, sobre todo, deportivas. Luego, repetimos la dinámica de las cinco palabras y realizamos una nueva entrevista para comprobar si hubo cambios en la percepción de los niños después de los videos. Antes de los videos, todos menos dos encoestados expresaron una visión centrada en las deficiencias y / o tecnologías asistenciales utilizadas por el PCD. También expresaron una percepción basada en tres estigmas generalmente asociados a estas personas: que son "discapacitados", "incapaces" y "pobre". Después de los videos, todos los niños expresaron una comprensión más positiva de la PWD, con un mayor enfoque en las capacidades que en sus supuestas limitaciones. Este estudio indica que producciones como las que mostramos a los niños pueden utilizarse como recursos pedagógicos para problematizar prejuicios y estigmas normalmente relacionados con la CPD, con el fin de promover una percepción más positiva de los mismos.

Abstract. The objective of this study, of a qualitative and exploratory nature, was to verify whether an indirect contact with people with disabilities (PWD), through media materials related to Paralympic sport, can change children's perception of these people. We interviewed 18 children from six to 12 years old, 13 of whom were interviewed in a focus group and 5 individually. First, we asked the children to write on a sheet of paper the first five words that came to mind when they heard the expression “person with a disability”. Aftwerwards, we conducted a semi-structured interview in order to explore more deeply what they had written. Subsequently, we showed two videos that contained images of PWD successfully carrying out daily, professional, artistic, and mainly, sporting activities. Then, we repeated the five words dynamicand conducted a new interview in order to check if there were changes in the children's perception. Before the videos, all interviewees, except for two, expressed a vision focused on the deficiencies and / or assistive technologies used by PWD. They also expressed a perception based on three stigmas usually associated with these people: that they are "disabled", "incapable" and "poor things". After the videos, all of them expressed a more positive understanding of PWD, with a greater focus on their capabilities than on their supposed limitations. This study indicates that materials such as the ones we showed children can be used as pedagogical resources to problematize prejudices and stigmas normally related to PWD, so that we can promote a more positive perception of them.

Biografía del autor/a

Jackeline Colere

Estudiante de Educación Física de la Universidad Federal de Paraná, Brasil 

Yasmin Vicente Vieira

Estudiante de Educación Física de la Universidad Federal de Paraná, Brasil 

Citas

Allport, G. W. (1954). The Nature of prejudice. Cambridge: Perseus.

Amaral, L. A. (1998). Sobre crocodilos e avestruzes: falando sobre diferenças físicas, preconceitos e sua superação. In Diferenças e preconceitos na Escola: Alternativas Teóricas e Práticas (pp. 11–30). São Paulo: Summus. Retrieved from http://www.rogerioa.com/resources/AMARAL.pdf

Barnes, C. (1992). Disabling Imagery and the Media: An Exploration of the Principles for Media Representations of Disabled People. The British Council of Organizations of Disabled People and Ryuburn Publishing Limited. Retrieved from https://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/40/library/Barnes-disabling-imagery.pdf

Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., … Leyens, J. P. (2009). Does Contact Reduce Prejudice or Does Prejudice Reduce Contact? A Longitudinal Test of the Contact Hypothesis Among Majority and Minority Groups in Three European Countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843–856. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013470

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Campbell, F. K. (2009). Contours of ableism: The production of disability and abledness. New York: Palgrave McMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230245181

Coates, J., & Vickerman, P. B. (2016). Paralympic legacy: Exploring the impact of the games on the perceptions of young people with disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 33(4), 338–357. https://doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0237

Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2009). Can Imagined Interactions Produce Positive Perceptions? Reducing Prejudice Through Simulated Social Contact. American Psychologist, 64(4), 231–240. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014718

Darcy, S. (2018). The Paralympic Movement: A Small Number of Behemoths Overwhelming a Large Number of Also-Rans—A Pyramid Built on Quicksand? In I. Brittain & A. Beacom (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies (pp. 218–246). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Darcy, S., & Appleby, L. (2011). Sydney 2000: Moving from Post-Hoc Legacy to Strategic Vision and Operational Partnerships. In D. Legg & K. Gilbert (Eds.), Paralympic Legacies (pp. 75–98). Champaign: Common Ground. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1404470/Sydney_2000_Moving_from_Post-Hoc_Legacy_to_Strategic_Vision_and_Operational_Partnership

Dilshad, R. M., & Latif, M. I. (2013). Focus group interview as a tool for qualitative research: an analysis. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 33(1), 191–198. https://doi.org/10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2018.07.030

Diniz, D. D. (2007). O que é deficiência. São Paulo: Brasiliense. Retrieved from http://www.museusacessiveis.com.br/arquivosDown/20190204153017_o_que_c©_deficicancia_-_dc©bora_diniz.pdf

Dovidio, J. F., Eller, A., & Hewstone, M. (2011). Improving intergroup relations through direct, extended and other forms of indirect contact. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14(2), 147–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430210390555

Ellis, K., & Goggin, G. (2015). Disability and the media. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gaudenzi, P., & Ortega, F. (2016). Problematizando o conceito de deficiência a partir das noções de autonomia e normalidade. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 21(10), 3061–3070. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320152110.16642016

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. https://doi.org/10.2307/2575995

Hilgemberg, T. (2014). Primeiro o esporte, depois a deficiência? Análise da cobertura midiática dos Jogos Paralímpicos de 2012. In Intercom (pp. 1–15). Foz do Iguaçu: Intercom. Retrieved from http://www.intercom.org.br/papers/regionais/centrooeste2010/resumos/R21-0142-1.pdf

Hodges, C. E. M., Jackson, D., Scullion, R., Thompson, S., & Molesworth, M. (2014). Tracking changes in everyday experiences of disability and disability sport within the context of the 2012 London Paralympics. Bournemouth. Retrieved from http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/21596/1/Para Report.pdf

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica. (2020). Campina Grande do Sul. Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved from https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/pr/campina-grande-do-sul/panorama

Kearney, S., Brittain, I., & Kipnis, E. (2019). “Superdisabilities” vs “disabilities”? Theorizing the role of ableism in (mis)representational mythology of disability in the marketplace. Consumption Markets & Culture, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253866.2018.1562701

Kirakosyan, L. (2016). Promoting disability rights for a stronger democracy in Brazil: The role of NGOs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(0489), 114S-130S. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764015602129

Maika, M., & Danylchuk, K. (2016). Representing Paralympians: The ‘other’ athletes in Canadian print media coverage of London 2012. International Journal of the History of Sport, 33(4), 401–417. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523367.2016.1160061

Marques, R. F. R. (2016). A contribuição dos Jogos Paralímpicos para a promoção da inclusão social: o discurso midiático como um obstáculo. Revista USP, (108), 87. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-9036.v0i108p87-96

Martins, J. A., & Barsaglini, R. A. (2011). Aspectos da identidade na experiência da deficiência física: Um olhar socioantropológico. Interface: Communication, Health, Education, 15(36), 109–121. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1414-32832010005000043

Michalko, R., & Titchkosky, T. (2009). Rethinking normalcy: A disability studies reader. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Misener, L., McPherson, G., McGillivray, D., & Legg, D. (2019). Leveraging disability sports events, impacts, promisses, and possibilities. Abingdon: Routledge. Retrieved from http://weekly.cnbnews.com/news/article.html?no=124000

Oliveira, A. P. V. de, Poffo, B. N., & Souza, D. L. (2018). “É melhor ser super-herói do que ser a vítima: um estudo sobre a percepção de atletas e ex-atletas com deficiência visual sobre a cobertura midiática. Movimento (ESEFID/UFRGS), 24(4), 1179–1190. https://doi.org/10.22456/1982-8918.84237

Oliver, M. (2009). Understanding disability: from theory to practice (2nd ed.). London: Palgrave McMillan.

Oliver, M., & Bochel, H. M. (1991). The Politics of Disablement. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 14(2), 185. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004356-199106000-00012

Ortiz, M., & Harwood, J. (2007). A social cognitive theory approach to the effects of mediated intergroup contact on intergroup attitudes. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 51(4), 615–631. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838150701626487

Park, S. Y. (2012). Mediated Intergroup Contact: Concept Explication, Synthesis, and Application. Mass Communication and Society, 15(1), 136–159. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2011.558804

Parker, R. (2012). Stigma, prejudice and discrimination in global public health. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 28(1), 164–169. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-311x2012000100017

Pereira, R. (2007). Anatomia da diferença: uma investigação teórico-descritiva da deficiência à luz do cotidiano. História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos, 14(3), 1088–1088. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0104-59702007000300026

Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751

Pettigrew, T. F., Tropp, L. R., Wagner, U., & Christ, O. (2011). Recent advances in intergroup contact theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(3), 271–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.03.001

Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., & Dovidio, J. F. (2008). Stigma and prejudice: One animal or two? Social Science and Medicine, 67(3), 358–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.022

Poffo, B. N., Velasco, A. P., Kugler, A. G., Furtado, S., Dos Santos, S. M., Fermino, A. L., & De Souza, D. L. (2017). Mídia e Jogos Paralímpicos no Brasil: investigando estigmas na cobertura jornalística da Folha de S. Paulo. Movimento, 23(4), 1353–1366. https://doi.org/10.22456/1982-8918.67945

Schiappa, E., Gregg, P. B., & Hewes, D. E. (2005). The parasocial contact hypothesis. Communication Monographs, 72(1), 92–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/0363775052000342544

Shakespeare, T. (2014). Disability rights and wrongs (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2007.04.21.33.30.b608

Silva, C. F., & Howe, P. D. (2012). The (In)validity of Supercrip Representation of Paralympian Athletes. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 36(2), 174–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723511433865

Souza, D. L., Marques, A. M., & Fermino, A. L. (2020). Paralympic Games: the experience with “the other” through the screens. Journal of Physical Education, 31, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4025/jphyseduc.v31i1.3170

Souza, D. L. de, & Brittain, I. (2020). The Rio 2016 Paralympic Games : The Visibility of People With Disabilities in Brazil as a Possible Legacy. Communication & Sport, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167479520942739

Tropp, L. R. (2005). Stigma and intergroup contact among members of minority and majority status groups. Stigma and Group Inequality: Social Psychological Perspectives, 16(12), 171–191. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410617057

Vezzali, L., & Stathi, S. (2017). Intergroup contact theory. Recent developments and future directions. Intergroup contact theory. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Vezzali, L., Stathi, S., & Giovannini, D. (2012). Indirect contact through book reading: Improving adolescents’ attitudes and behavioral intentions toward immigrants. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 148–162. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits

Wendell, S. (1989). Towards a feminist theory of disabiity. In S. Sherwin & B. Parish (Eds.), Women, Medicine, Ethics and the law (pp. 104–124). Routledge.

Publicado
2021-04-24
Cómo citar
Souza, D., Colere, J., & Vieira, Y. (2021). El contacto con el deporte paralímpico como medio para cambiar la percepción que tienen los niños de las personas con discapacidad (Contact with Paralympic sport as a means to change children’s perception of people with disabilities). Retos, 42, 396-405. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.87454
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas