Análisis de electromiografía en la sentadilla libre con barra: Revisión sistemática (Electromyography analysis of the free barbell squat: A systematic review)

Autores/as

  • Víctor Hugo López-Trujillo Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Karla Dolores Bustamante-Valles Centro de Investigación en Bioingenieria
  • Ramón Candia-Luján Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua
  • Raul Josue Najera Longoria Universidad Autonoma de chihuahua

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v45i0.87246

Palabras clave:

Entrenamiento deportivo, fuerza muscular, ejercicio físico, biomecánica, contracción muscular, 1RM, (Sport training, muscular strength, physical exercise, biomechanics, muscle contraction, 1RM)

Resumen

 

Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de literatura que evalúa la activación muscular por electromiografía (EMG) en sentadilla libre con barra (SLB), así como cambios producidos por factores cinéticos y cinemáticos. Métodos: Se utilizaron los lineamientos de la declaración PRISMA y de calidad metodológica de la declaración STROBE. Se incluyeron artículos originales encontrados en bases de datos Scopus, PubMed, Scielo y Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Se encontraron 1889 artículos de los cuales debido a los criterios: sujetos con experiencia previa en entrenamiento resistido que midieran la ejecución de la SLB y utilización de EMG. Finalmente se utilizaron 18 artículos para el análisis. Resultados: La evidencia posiciona al cuádriceps femoral y el vasto medial como el grupo muscular y el músculo con mayor participación en la SLB. La actividad muscular en la SLB puede ser afectada por la carga de trabajo, la velocidad de ejecución, el tipo de resistencia y el rango de movimiento. Existe una tendencia a mayor compromiso muscular en la medida que aumenta la carga o la velocidad de ascenso, sin embargo, el aumento de la carga tiende a afectar de forma negativa a la velocidad. Conclusiones: Las cargas submáximas parecen generar activaciones musculares similares al 1RM, con el aliciente de menor riesgo de lesión que las cargas máximas. Mayores estudios con criterios metodológicos unificados son requeridos para identificar el punto óptimo de activación muscular en base a la carga de trabajo. 

Abstract. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review of studies that evaluate electromyography muscle activation in the free barbell back squat (BS), and the changes produced by the effect of kinetic and kinematic factors. Methods: This study was conducted according to The PRISMA declaration and the STROBE guidelines to assess the methodological quality. Databases included were Scopus, PubMed, Scielo y Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). A total of 1889 original articles were selected using the inclusion criteria as follows: subjects previously experienced in resistance training including EMG assesment during the execution of the BS. The final selection consisted of 18 articles. Results: The evidence suggest to the quadriceps femoris and vastus medialis as the muscle group and the muscle with the greatest participation in BS. Muscle activity in BS can be affected by load, speed of execution, resistance type, and range of motion. There is a relationship between high muscle activity and increased load or velocity in the lift back up phase, however, increased load tends to negatively affect velocity in squat performance. Conclusions: Submaximal loads seem to produce similar muscle activation to the 1RM, with the incentive of a lower risk of injury compared to the maximum loads. More studies with unified methodological criteria are required to identify the optimal muscle activation based on the load.

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Publicado

2022-06-21

Cómo citar

López-Trujillo, V. H., Bustamante-Valles, K. D., Candia-Luján, R., & Najera Longoria, R. J. (2022). Análisis de electromiografía en la sentadilla libre con barra: Revisión sistemática (Electromyography analysis of the free barbell squat: A systematic review). Retos, 45, 611–621. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v45i0.87246

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