Test unipodal para estabilidad corporal estática con ojos abiertos y cerrados en la valoración de riesgo de caída en adultos mayores (Unipodal test for static body stability with open and closed eyes in the assessment of fall risk in older adults)

  • Cristian Díaz Escobar
  • Macarena Catalán Neira
  • Matías Pozo Núñez
  • Víctor Patricio Díaz Narváez Universidad Andres Bello https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5486-0415
Palabras clave: estabilidad unipodal, adulto mayor, riesgo de caída, (Unipodal stability, elderly, risk of falling)

Resumen

 

Introducción: La estabilidad postural es un factor clave en la funcionalidad motora del ser humano, con el envejecimiento se produce alteración del balance postural y una alternativa de evaluación son las pruebas de estabilidad unipodal. Objetivo: Determinar el rendimiento de adultos mayores con el Test unipodal para estabilidad corporal estática (TUPECE) en modalidad ojos abiertos y ojos cerrados; observando estrategias de estabilización en pie de apoyo, movimiento de miembros superiores y pie elevado. Métodos: Estudio de concordancia diagnóstica, de corte transversal; realizado en 60 adultos mayores inscritos en un centro deportivo, comuna de San Miguel, Región Metropolitana, Chile. Quienes ejecutaron el TUPECE con ojos abiertos y cerrados, junto con una consulta referida al test. Resultados: La concordancia entre evaluadores en función al TUPECE no presentó diferencias significativas, demostrándose simetría en la evaluación observacional. Se determinó diferencia significativamente alta comparando la prueba con ojos abiertos y cerrados (p<0,0001), presentándose mayor estabilidad con ojos abiertos. A mayor edad la estabilidad es más deficiente (p<0.05). No hubo diferencia significativa entre géneros (p>0,05). Conclusión: El TUPECE presentó una alta confiabilidad interevaluador al valorar la estabilidad unipodal en adultos mayores. La prueba diferencia rendimiento con ojos abiertos y cerrados; demostró también diferencias por edad pero no por género. De acuerdo a los resultados y características de la prueba se expone como un procedimiento positivo para valorar la estabilidad unipodal estática con ojos abiertos y cerrados en adultos mayores. 

Abstract. Introduction: Postural stability is a key factor in the motor functionality of the human being, with aging there is an alteration of the postural balance and an evaluation alternative is the unipodal stability tests. Objective: To determine the performance of older adults with the Unipodal Test for Static Body Stability (TUPECE) in open and closed eyes mode; observing stabilization strategies in standing support, movement of upper limbs and raised foot. Methods: Diagnostic concordance study, cross-sectional; conducted on 60 older adults enrolled in a sports center, San Miguel commune, Metropolitan Region, Chile. Those who executed the TUPECE with eyes open and closed, along with a consultation about the test. Results: The concordance between evaluators in the TUPECE did not present significant differences, demonstrating symmetry in the observational evaluation. High significant difference was determined comparing the test with open and closed eyes (p<0.0001), presenting greater stability with open eyes. The older the age, the poorer the stability (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between genders (p>0.05). Conclusion: TUPECE presented a high interevaluator reliability when assessing unipodal stability in older adults. The test differentiates performance with open and closed eyes; it also showed differences by age but not by gender. According to the results and characteristics of the test, it is exposed as a positive procedure to evaluate the static unipodal stability with open and closed eyes in older adults.

Citas

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Publicado
2021-05-16
Cómo citar
Díaz Escobar, C., Catalán Neira, M., Pozo Núñez, M., & Díaz Narváez, V. (2021). Test unipodal para estabilidad corporal estática con ojos abiertos y cerrados en la valoración de riesgo de caída en adultos mayores (Unipodal test for static body stability with open and closed eyes in the assessment of fall risk in older adults). Retos, 42, 604-611. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v42i0.86645
Sección
Artículos de carácter científico: trabajos de investigaciones básicas y/o aplicadas